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October 2012 Passenger Airline Employment Down 1.3 Percent from October 2011

 
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Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-Time Equivalent Employees, Month of October, 1990-2012

Excel: bts060_12_chart.xls

Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-Time Equivalent Employees, Month of October, 1990-2012

Friday, December 21, 2012 - U.S. scheduled passenger airlines employed 384,310 workers in October 2012, 1.3 percent fewer than in October 2011, the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reported today. Scheduled passenger airline categories include network, low-cost, regional and other airlines. This was the second consecutive month that full-time equivalent (FTE) employment for U.S. scheduled passenger carriers has been lower than the same month of the previous year. This follows 22 months of year-to-year increases that began in October 2010 (Table 2).

BTS, a part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, reported that the October 2012 FTE total for scheduled passenger carriers was 5,134 fewer than in October 2011 and is the lowest monthly total since May 2011 (Table 3).  Historical employment data can be found on the BTS web site.

There were 0.5 percent fewer FTEs in October 2012 than in September 2012.  Month-to-month changes can be affected by seasonal factors, such as the number of flights and passengers.

The five network airlines that collectively employ two-thirds of the scheduled passenger airline FTEs reported 1.4 percent fewer FTEs in October, the third consecutive decline for the group. Delta Air Lines, eliminating positions following its merger with Northwest Airlines, reduced FTEs by 2.0 percent from October 2011. American Airlines, which filed for bankruptcy in November 2011, reduced FTEs by 5.7 percent. United Airlines reported a post-merger total of 82,312 FTEs in October 2012, 1,613 or 2.0 percent more FTEs than the 80,699 United and Continental Airlines reported separately in October 2011 (Table 9). Network airlines operate a significant portion of flights using at least one hub where connections are made for flights to down-line destinations or spoke cities.

Among the six low-cost carriers, Allegiant Airlines, Virgin America Airlines, Spirit Airlines and JetBlue Airways reported an increase in FTEs.  Frontier Airlines was the only low-cost carrier reporting fewer FTEs. Southwest Airlines reported 46,015 FTEs in October 2012 in a joint report following its merger with AirTran Airways. The combined total was 709 or 1.6 percent more than the 45,306 FTEs the two airlines reported separately in October 2011 (Table 12). Low-cost airlines operate under a low-cost business model, with infrastructure and aircraft operating costs below the overall industry average.

Among the 16 regional carriers, nine carriers reported reduced employment levels in October compared to last year: Colgan Airlines, ExpressJet Airlines, Mesa Airlines, Horizon Airlines, Comair, Pinnacle Airlines, SkyWest Airlines, Air Wisconsin and Executive Airlines. The total number of FTEs reported by Pinnacle – which recently merged with Mesaba Airlines – was 16.8 percent fewer than the total number of FTEs reported individually by the two airlines prior to the merger (Table 15). Regional carriers typically provide service from small cities, using primarily regional jets to support the network carriers’ hub and spoke systems.

Carrier Groups: The five network airlines employed 67.5 percent of the total number of FTEs employed by all scheduled passenger airlines in October, the six low-cost carriers employed 18.1 percent and the 16 regional carriers employed 13.1 percent (Table 4). The three airlines with the most FTEs in October – United, Delta and American – employed 57.2 percent of the total passenger airline FTEs (Table 6).

Top employers by group: The newly-merged United employed the most FTEs (82,312) in October among the network airlines, Southwest employed the most FTEs (46,015) among low-cost airlines, and American Eagle Airlines employed the most FTEs (10,441) among regional airlines. Four of the top five employers in the industry are network airlines (Table 6).

Network Airlines

Recent Trend: The network airlines employed 3,667 fewer FTEs in October 2012 than in October 2011. Only two of the five network carriers increased FTEs from October 2011 to October 2012 (Tables 8, 9).

Five-Year Trend: The network airlines employed 7,363 fewer FTEs in October 2012 than in October 2008, a 2.8 percent decrease. American reported the biggest percentage decline in FTE employment from 2008 to 2012, 10.9 percent, followed by Alaska Airlines, down 6.5 percent. October 2008 and October 2012 numbers for United and Delta are not directly comparable because of the intervening mergers. United reported 0.6 percent more FTEs in October 2012 than United and Continental reported separately in October 2008; Delta reported 1.8 percent more FTEs in October 2012 than Delta and Northwest reported separately in October 2008 (Tables 8, 9).

Low-Cost Airlines

Recent Trend: The six low-cost airlines’ FTEs were up 1.9 percent in October 2012 from October 2011. All low-cost airlines except Frontier reported year-to-year increases (Table 12).

Five-Year Trend: The six low-cost carriers reporting employment data in both 2008 and 2012 employed 11.0 percent more FTEs in October 2012 than in October 2008.  Virgin America reported the largest percentage increase (99.4 percent), while Frontier reported a decline. October 2012 numbers for Southwest are not directly comparable to 2008 because of the intervening merger. Southwest reported 7.0 percent more FTEs in October 2012 than Southwest and AirTran reported separately in October 2008 (Table 12).

Regional Airlines

Recent Trend: Regional airlines reported a 6.0 percent decrease in FTE employment in October 2012 compared to October 2011. GoJet Airlines and Shuttle America report the largest percentage increases in FTEs from October 2011 to October 2012 among airlines not involved in mergers. Comair and Colgan reported the largest percentage decreases. Atlantic Southeast Airlines and ExpressJet Airlines reported separately in October 2011, as did Pinnacle and Mesaba, while their reports were combined in October 2012 as a result of mergers (Table 15).

Five-Year Trend: The 16 regional carriers reporting employment data in both October 2008 and October 2012 employed 13.3 percent fewer FTEs in 2012 than in 2008. Comair reported the largest percentage decline followed by Colgan. GoJet reported the biggest four-year percentage gain. Effective with January 2011 reporting, Republic Airline’s employment numbers include FTEs from Midwest Airlines. Midwest employment data were formerly included in the "Other Airlines" category (Table 15).

Airlines that operate at least one aircraft with the capacity to carry combined passengers, cargo and fuel of 18,000 pounds – the payload factor – must report monthly employment statistics.

The “Other Carrier” category generally reflects those airlines that operate within specific niche markets such as Hawaiian Airlines serving the Hawaiian Islands. 

Data are compiled from monthly reports filed with BTS by commercial air carriers as of Dec. 17. Additional airline employment data and previous press releases can be found on the BTS website. BTS has scheduled release of November passenger airline employment data for Jan. 29.

Table 1: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Airline Group

Most recent 13 months - percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month Network Airlines   Low-Cost Airlines Regional Airlines All Passenger Airlines**
Oct 2010-Oct 2011 2.7 6.2 2.1 3.0
Nov 2010-Nov 2011 2.6 5.9 0.6 2.6
Dec 2010-Dec 2011 2.3 6.5 1.5 2.7
Jan 2011-Jan 2012 1.5 5.7 0.1 2.1
Feb 2011-Feb 2012 1.2 6.4 0.9 2.1
Mar 2011-Mar 2012 1.2 7.1 0.2 2.1
Apr 2011-Apr 2012 1.3 5.7 -1.5 1.8
May 2011-May 2012 1.3 5.3 -2.2 1.6
Jun 2011-Jun 2012 1.4 4.0 -2.5 1.4
Jul 2011-Jul 2012 0.8 3.5 -3.3 0.8
Aug 2011-Aug 2012 -0.2 2.5 -2.3 0.1
Sep 2011-Sep 2012 -0.8 2.5 -4.3 -0.6
Oct 2011-Oct 2012 -1.4 1.9 -6.0 -1.3

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers. Other Carriers generally operate within specific niche markets.  They are: Hawaiian Airlines and Sun Country Airlines.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Note: See Table 2 for all passenger airlines, Table 7 for Network, Table 10 for Low-Cost and Table 13 for Regional.

Table 2: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline* Full-time Equivalent Employees**

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.7 -2.9 0.4 2.1
February -6.6 -3.5 1.0 2.1
March -5.6 -3.8 1.5 2.1
April -5.5 -4.1 2.0 1.8
May -6.8 -2.7 2.1 1.6
June -6.3 -2.4 1.9 1.4
July -5.9 -2.3 2.3 0.8
August -5.5 -1.7 2.8 0.1
September -4.4 -0.6 2.9 -0.6
October -3.7 -0.4 3.0 -1.3
November -3.3 0.0 2.6  
December -3.3 0.2 2.7  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.                                    

** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.                                        

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 3: Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

FTE numbers in thousands (000’s)

Month 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change     
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 418.7 390.6 379.4 380.9 388.8 -7.1 2.1
February 419.0 391.6 378.0 381.8 389.9 -6.9 2.1
March 415.5 392.1 377.3 382.8 390.8 -6.0 2.1
April 415.4 392.1 376.2 383.4 390.2 -6.1 1.8
May 415.5 387.4 377.0 385.0 391.0 -5.9 1.6
June 414.4 387.7 378.3 385.4 390.9 -5.7 1.4
July 411.1 386.8 378.1 386.8 390.0 -5.1 0.8
August 406.7 384.3 377.8 388.5 389.0 -4.4 0.1
September 397.3 379.9 377.7 388.6 386.4 -2.7 -0.6
October 394.2 379.7 378.1 389.4 384.3 -2.5 -1.3
November 392.1 379.4 379.3 389.4      
December 391.8 379.0 379.7 389.7      
12-Month Average 407.6 385.9 378.1 386.0      
Jan-Oct Average 410.8 387.2 377.8 385.3 389.1 -5.3 1.0

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.                                      

Table 4: Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2008-2012

FTE numbers in thousands (000’s)

  Network Low-Cost Regional All Passenger Airlines**
2008 266.6 62.7 58.0 394.2
2009 259.0 62.4 52.1 379.7
2010 255.9 64.3 52.4 378.1
2011 262.9 68.3 53.5 389.4
2012 259.2 69.6 50.3 384.3
Pct. Change 2008-2012 -2.8% 11.0% -13.3% -2.5%
Percent of Total Passenger Airline Employees in 2012 67.5% 18.1% 13.1%  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

Table 5: Year-to-Year Change in Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2008-2012

Percent change in FTEs from the same month of the previous year

  Network Low-Cost Regional All Passenger Airlines**
2008 -5.4 -1.5 -5.3 -5.7
2009 -2.8 -0.4 -10.1 -3.7
2010 -1.2 3.0 0.5 -0.4
2011 2.7 6.2 2.1 3.0
2012 -1.4 1.9 -6.0 -1.3

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.                                         

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.       

Table 6: Top 10 Airlines, October 2012

FTE numbers in thousands (000’s)

Rank Airline Total FTE Employees Carrier Group** Top 10 Airlines October 2011
1 United 82.3 Network Delta
2 Delta 74.7 Network American
3 American 62.7 Network United
4 Southwest 46.0 Low-Cost Southwest
5 US Airways 30.4 Network Continental
6 JetBlue 12.5 Low-Cost US Airways
7 American Eagle 10.4 Regional JetBlue
8 SkyWest 9.2 Regional American Eagle
9 Alaska 9.2 Network SkyWest
10 ExpressJet 8.9 Regional Alaska

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.                                         

** See Table 9 for Network, Table 12 for Low-Cost and Table 15 for Regional

Table 7: Network Airlines Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year**

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

  2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.3 -2.3 0.3 1.5
February -6.4 -3.0 1.1 1.2
March -6.7 -3.1 1.5 1.2
April -6.5 -3.6 1.8 1.3
May -8.2 -1.9 2.1 1.3
June -7.8 -1.6 1.6 1.4
July -7.1 -1.6 2.1 0.8
August -6.4 -0.9 2.7 -0.2
September -5.0 0.3 2.7 -0.8
October -2.8 -1.2 2.7 -1.4
November -2.7 -0.7 2.6  
December -2.5 -0.5 2.3  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.     

Table 8: Network Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month**

FTE numbers in thousands (000’s)

Month 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change     
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 281.7 263.9 257.8 258.7 262.6 -6.8 1.5
February 282.6 264.6 256.8 259.5 262.8 -7.0 1.2
March 283.9 264.8 256.5 260.5 263.5 -7.2 1.2
April 283.7 265.2 255.7 260.3 263.7 -7.1 1.3
May 283.6 260.5 255.5 260.8 264.2 -6.9 1.3
June 282.8 260.8 256.6 260.7 264.3 -6.5 1.4
July 280.4 260.5 256.4 261.8 263.8 -5.9 0.8
August 276.1 258.6 256.1 263.1 262.4 -5.0 -0.2
September 268.4 254.9 255.8 262.6 260.6 -2.9 -0.8
October 266.6 259.0 255.9 262.9 259.2 -2.8 -1.4
November 265.2 258.1 256.4 263.1      
December 264.7 258.1 256.8 262.6      
12-Month Average 276.7 260.8 256.4 261.4      
Jan-Oct Average 279.0 261.3 256.3 261.1 262.7 -5.8 0.6

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding. 

Table 9: Network Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2008-2012

(FTEs for October of each year.  Ranked by October 2012 FTEs)

FTE numbers in thousands (000’s)

Rank Airline 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change     
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 United*** 47.2 44.1 43.6 43.6 82.3 N/A N/A
  Continental*** 34.6 33.3 32.5 37.1 N/A N/A N/A
  UA/CO Combined 81.8 77.4 76.1 80.7 82.3 0.6 2.0
2 Delta** 45.7 49.0 76.3 76.2 74.7 N/A N/A
  Northwest** 27.7 26.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
  DL/NW Combined 73.3 75.5 76.3 76.2 74.7 1.8 -2.0
3 American 70.4 66.9 65.1 66.5 62.7 -10.9 -5.7
4 US Airways 31.2 30.0 29.5 30.6 30.4 -2.8 -0.8
5 Alaska 9.9 9.3 9.0 8.9 9.2 -6.5 3.3
  Total 266.6 259.0 255.9 262.9 259.2 -2.8 -1.4

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee

** Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2010.

*** United Airlines and Continental Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2012. Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 10: Low-Cost Airlines Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -3.1 1.4 2.2 5.7
February -3.0 1.4 2.3 6.4
March 0.1 1.2 2.3 7.1
April 1.2 0.5 4.0 5.7
May 1.2 0.6 4.1 5.3
June 0.8 0.9 5.0 4.0
July 0.9 1.5 5.3 3.5
August -0.2 2.0 5.7 2.5
September -0.1 2.7 5.9 2.5
October -0.4 3.0 6.2 1.9
November -0.1 3.2 5.9  
December 0.0 3.3 6.6  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.                                          

Table 11: Low-Cost Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month**

FTE numbers in thousands (000’s)

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  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change     
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 64.7 62.7 63.6 65.0 68.7 6.1 5.7
February 64.9 63.0 63.8 65.3 69.5 7.0 6.4
March** 62.9 63.0 63.8 65.3 69.9 11.0 7.1
April*** 62.5 63.3 63.6 66.1 69.9 11.4 5.7
May 62.8 63.5 63.9 66.6 70.1 11.5 5.3
June 63.0 63.5 64.0 67.3 70.0 11.1 4.0
July 62.5 63.0 64.0 67.4 69.8 11.7 3.5
August 62.9 62.8 64.0 67.7 69.4 10.4 2.5
September 62.5 62.4 64.1 67.9 69.6 11.3 2.5
October 62.7 62.4 64.3 68.3 69.6 11.0 1.9
November 62.7 62.6 64.7 68.5      
December 62.6 62.6 64.7 68.9      
12-Month Average 63.1 62.9 64.0 67.0      
Jan-Oct Average 63.1 63.0 63.9 66.7 69.6 10.3 4.4

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Note: Percent changes and averages based on numbers prior to rounding.

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** ATA Airlines ceased operations on April 3, 2008 and stopped reporting employment data effective in March.

***SkyBus stopped reporting employment data effective in April 2008 resulting from its bankruptcy filing.

Table 12: Low-Cost Carrier Full-time Equivalent Employees,* October 2008-2012**

(FTEs for October of each year.  Ranked by October 2012 FTEs)

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Rank   2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 Southwest** 35,665 34,748 34,990 37,349 46,015 N/A N/A
  AirTran 7,342 7,753 7,767 7,957 N/A N/A N/A
  WN/FL Combined 43,007 42,501 42,757 45,306 46,015 7.0 1.6
2 JetBlue 10,360 10,801 11,245 12,108 12,506 20.7 3.3
3 Frontier 4,460 4,284 4,839 4,835 4,007 -10.2 -17.1
4 Spirit 2,316 1,883 2,121 2,401 2,812 21.4 17.1
5 Virgin America 1,220 1,423 1,710 2,056 2,433 99.4 18.3
6 Allegiant 1,307 1,515 1,627 1,563 1,779 36.1 13.8
  Total 62,668 62,406 64,299 68,267 69,551 11.0 1.9

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways merged and began reporting combined numbers in April 2012.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 13: Regional Airlines Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.0 -8.5 0.4 0.1
February -4.9 -9.8 0.9 0.8
March -4.9 -10.1 1.8 0.2
April -7.4 -9.3 2.1 -1.5
May -7.7 -8.0 1.6 -2.2
June -7.2 -7.7 1.5 -2.5
July -6.9 -7.5 1.9 -3.3
August -6.8 -7.2 2.1 -2.3
September -5.7 -6.6 2.0 -4.3
October -10.1 0.5 2.1 -6.0
November -7.5 -1.0 0.6  
December -8.9 -0.3 1.5  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 14: Regional Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

FTE numbers in thousands (000’s)

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  2008** 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change     
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 61.1 57.4 52.5 52.8 52.8 -13.6 0.1
February 60.5 57.6 52.0 52.4 52.8 -12.7 0.8
March 60.2 57.3 51.5 52.5 52.6 -12.7 0.2
April 61.3 56.8 51.5 52.6 51.8 -15.5 -1.5
May 61.4 56.6 52.1 52.9 51.7 -15.7 -2.2
June 61.0 56.6 52.2 53.0 51.7 -15.3 -2.5
July 60.7 56.5 52.2 53.2 51.5 -15.2 -3.3
August 60.3 56.2 52.2 53.3 52.1 -13.7 -2.3
September 59.4 56.0 52.3 53.4 51.1 -14.0 -4.3
October 58.0 52.1 52.4 53.5 50.3 -13.3 -6.0
November 57.5 53.2 52.7 53.0      
December 57.9 52.7 52.5 53.3      
12-Month Average 59.9 55.8 52.2 53.0      
Jan-Oct Average 60.4 56.3 52.1 52.9 51.8 -14.2 -2.1

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Lynx Airlines began reporting in February 2008. Colgan Airlines began reporting in April 2008. Trans States Airlines no longer met reporting requirements beginning in April 2008.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 15: Regional Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2008- 2012

(FTEs for October of each year.  Ranked by October 2012 FTEs)

Rank   2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 American Eagle 9,424 9,024 9,457 10,184 10,441 10.8 2.5
2 SkyWest 8,951 8,591 9,023 9,414 9,227 3.1 -2.0
3 ExpressJet# 5,538 5,262 5,476 5,427 8,935 61.3 64.6
  Atlantic Southeast# 4,412 3,617 3,709 3,869 N/A N/A N/A
  XE/EV Combined 9,950 8,879 9,185 9,296 8,935 -10.2 -3.9
4 Pinnacle** 3,594 3,352 3,421 3,758 4,750 32.2 26.4
  Mesaba** 3,532 2,355 2,203 1,952 N/A N/A N/A
  9E/XJ Combined 7,126 5,707 5,624 5,710 4,750 -33.3 -16.8
5 Horizon 3,522 3,215 2,938 2,838 2,732 -22.4 -3.7
6 Air Wisconsin 2,788 2,530 2,531 2,555 2,544 -8.8 -0.4
7 Republic*** 1,292 1,744 2,005 2,028 2,057 59.2 1.4
8 Shuttle America 1,083 1,324 1,242 1,581 1,890 74.5 19.5
9 Mesa 2,924 2,582 2,092 1,840 1,643 -43.8 -10.7
10 Executive 1,617 1,784 1,771 1,799 1,330 -17.7 -26.1
11 Chautauqua**** N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,322 N/A N/A
12 Compass 754 881 977 1,026 1,135 50.5 10.6
13 PSA 984 970 998 1,040 1,089 10.7 4.7
14 GoJet 407 537 552 611 1,036 154.5 69.6
15 Comair 5,525 2,717 2,497 1,992 114 -97.9 -94.3
16 Colgan 1,295 1,263 1,391 1,580 64 -95.1 -95.9
17 Lynx## 352 397 121 N/A N/A N/A N/A
  Total 57,992 52,143 52,404 53,490 50,305 -13.3 -6.0

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Pinnacle Airlines and Mesaba Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

*** Effective with November 2009 reporting, Republic Airlines' employment numbers include FTE's from Midwest Airlines.  Midwest employment data were formerly included in the "Other Airlines" category.

**** Effective July 2012 Chautauqua Airlines began reporting employment data.

# ExpressJet Airlines and Atlantic Southeast Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

## Effective the end of March 2011, Lynx Airlines ceased operations.

N/A: Carriers did not meet the standard for filing, was no longer operating, merged with another operating carrier or failed to file.  See previous notes.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.