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August 2012 Employment Increased 0.1 Percent from August 2011

August 2012 Employment Increased 0.1 Percent from August 2011

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Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-Time Equivalent Employees, Month of August, 1990-2012

Table Version | Excel | CSV

Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-Time Equivalent Employees, Month of July, 1990-2012.

Friday, November 2, 2012 - U.S. scheduled passenger airlines employed 388,992 workers in August 2012, 0.1 percent more than in August 2011, the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reported today. Scheduled passenger airline categories include network, low-cost, regional and other airlines. This is the 21st consecutive month that full-time equivalent (FTE) employee levels for U.S. scheduled passenger carriers have been higher than the same month of the previous year, but the smallest year-to-year rise since growth resumed in December 2010 (Tables 1, 2). BTS methodology considers two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

BTS, a part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, reported that the August 2012 FTE total of 388,992 for scheduled passenger carriers, 469 more than in August 2011, is the highest total for any August since 2008, despite the slowing year-to-year growth rate (Table 3).  Historical employment data can be found on the BTS web site.

The five network airlines that collectively employ two-thirds of the scheduled passenger airline FTEs reported 0.2 percent fewer FTEs in August, the first decline for the group since December 2010. Delta Air Lines, eliminating positions following its merger with Northwest Airlines, reduced FTEs by 2.0 percent from August 2011. American Airlines, which filed for bankruptcy in November 2011, reduced FTEs by 3.8 percent. United Airlines reported a post-merger total of 81,946 FTEs in August 2012, 3,258, or 3.9 percent, more FTEs than the 78,868 United and Continental Airlines reported separately in August 2011 (Table 9). Network airlines operate a significant portion of flights using at least one hub where connections are made for flights to down-line destinations or spoke cities.

Among the six low-cost carriers, Allegiant Airlines, Virgin America Airlines, Spirit Airlines and JetBlue Airways reported an increase in FTEs. Frontier Airlines was the only low-cost carrier reporting fewer FTEs. Southwest Airlines reported 45,749 FTEs in August 2012 in a joint report following its merger with AirTran Airways. The combined tally was 842, or 1.9 percent, more than the 44,907 FTEs the two airlines reported separately in August 2011 (Table 12). Low-cost airlines operate under a low-cost business model, with infrastructure and aircraft operating costs below the overall industry average.

Among the 15 regional carriers, seven carriers reported reduced employment levels compared to last year: Colgan Airlines, Mesa Airlines, Horizon Airlines, Republic Airlines, Comair, Pinnacle Airlines and Executive Airlines. The total number of FTEs reported by Pinnacle – which recently merged with Mesaba Airlines – was below the total number of FTEs reported individually by the two airlines prior to the merger (Table 15). Regional carriers typically provide service from small cities, using primarily regional jets to support the network carriers hub and spoke systems.

Carrier Groups: The five network airlines employed 67.4 percent of the total number of FTEs employed by all scheduled passenger airlines in August, the six low-cost carriers employed 17.8 percent and the 16 regional carriers employed 13.4 percent (Table 4). The three airlines with the most FTEs in August – United, Delta and American – employed 57.3 percent of the total passenger airline FTEs (Table 6).

Top employers by group: The newly-merged United employed the most FTEs (81,946) in August among the network airlines, Southwest employed the most FTEs (45,749) among low-cost airlines, and American Eagle Airlines employed the most FTEs (9,953) among regional airlines. Four of the top five employers in the industry are network airlines (Table 6).

Network Airlines

Recent Trend: The network airlines employed 637 fewer FTEs in August 2012 than in August 2011. Three of the five network carriers increased FTEs from August 2011 to August 2012 (Tables 8, 9).

Five-Year Trend: The network airlines employed 13,692 fewer FTEs in August 2012 than in August 2008, a 5.0 percent decrease. American reported the biggest percentage decline in FTE employment from 2008 to 2012, 7.9 percent, followed by Alaska Airlines, down 7.7 percent. August 2008 and August 2012 numbers for United and Delta are not directly comparable because of the intervening mergers. United reported 3.9 percent fewer FTEs in August 2012 than United and Continental reported separately in August 2008; Delta reported 1.4 percent more FTEs in August 2012 than Delta and Northwest reported separately in August 2008 (Tables 8, 9).

Low-Cost Airlines

Recent Trend: The six low-cost airlines FTEs were up 2.5 percent in August 2012 from August 2011. All low-cost airlines except Frontier reported year-to-year increases (Table 12).

Five-Year Trend: The six low-cost carriers reporting employment data in both 2008 and 2012 employed 10.3 percent more FTEs in August 2012 than in August 2008. Virgin America reported the largest percentage increase (113.0 percent), while Frontier reported a decline. August 2012 numbers for Southwest are not directly comparable to 2008 because of the intervening merger. Southwest reported 5.8 percent more FTEs in August 2012 than Southwest and AirTran reported separately in August 2008 (Table 12).

Regional Airlines

Recent Trend: Regional airlines reported a 2.3 percent decrease in FTE employment in August 2012 compared to August 2011. GoJet Airlines and Shuttle America report the largest percentage increases in FTEs from August 2011 to August 2012 among airlines not involved in mergers. Comair and Colgan reported the largest percentage decreases. Atlantic Southeast Airlines and ExpressJet Airlines reported separately in August 2011, as did Pinnacle and Mesaba, while their reports were combined in August 2012 as a result of mergers (Table 15).

Five-Year Trend: The 15 regional carriers reporting employment data in both 2008 and 2012 employed 15.8 percent fewer FTEs in 2012 than in 2008. Comair reported the largest percentage decline followed by Colgan. GoJet reported the biggest four-year percentage gain. Effective with January 2011 reporting, Republics employment numbers include FTEs from Midwest Airlines. Midwest employment data were formerly included in the "Other Airlines" category (Table 15).

Reporting Notes

Airlines that operate at least one aircraft with the capacity to carry combined passengers, cargo and fuel of 18,000 pounds – the payload factor – must report monthly employment statistics.

The "Other Carrier" category generally reflects those airlines that operate within specific niche markets such as Hawaiian Airlines serving the Hawaiian Islands.

Data are compiled from monthly reports filed with BTS by commercial air carriers as of Oct. 17. Additional airline employment data can be found on the BTS website. BTS has scheduled release of September passenger airline employment data for Nov. 29.

Table 1: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Airline Group

Most recent 13 months - percent change compared to same month the previous year

Excel | CSV

Month Network Airlines Low-Cost Airlines Regional Airlines All Passenger Airlines**
Aug. 2010-Aug. 2011 2.7 5.7 2.1 2.8
Sept. 2010-Sept. 2011 2.7 5.9 2.0 2.9
Oct. 2010-Oct. 2011 2.7 6.2 2.1 3.0
Nov. 2010-Nov. 2011 2.6 5.9 0.6 2.6
Dec. 2010-Dec. 2011 2.3 6.5 1.5 2.7
Jan. 2011-Jan. 2012 1.5 5.7 0.1 2.1
Feb. 2011-Feb. 2012 1.2 6.4 0.9 2.1
Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 1.2 7.1 0.2 2.1
Apr. 2011-Apr. 2012 1.3 5.7 -1.5 1.8
May 2011-May 2012 1.3 5.3 -2.2 1.6
June 2011-June 2012 1.4 4.0 -2.5 1.4
July 2011-July 2012 0.8 3.5 -3.3 0.8
Aug. 2011-Aug. 2012 -0.2 2.5 -2.3 0.1

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers. Other Carriers generally operate within specific niche markets. They are: Hawaiian Airlines and Sun Country Airlines.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Note: See Table 2 for all passenger airlines, Table 7 for Network, Table 10 for Low-Cost and Table 13 for Regional.

Table 2: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline* Full-time Equivalent Employees**

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Excel | CSV

Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.7 -2.9 0.4 2.1
February -6.6 -3.5 1.0 2.1
March -5.6 -3.8 1.5 2.1
April -5.5 -4.1 2.0 1.8
May -6.8 -2.7 2.1 1.6
June -6.3 -2.4 1.9 1.4
July -5.9 -2.3 2.3 0.8
August -5.5 -1.7 2.8 0.1
September -4.4 -0.6 2.9  
October -3.7 -0.4 3.0  
November -3.3 0.0 2.6  
December -3.3 0.2 2.7  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 3: Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

FTE numbers in thousands (000s)

Excel | CSV

Month 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 418.7 390.6 379.4 380.9 388.8 -7.1 2.1
February 419.0 391.6 378.0 381.8 389.9 -6.9 2.1
March 415.5 392.1 377.3 382.8 390.8 -6.0 2.1
April 415.4 392.1 376.2 383.4 390.2 -6.1 1.8
May 415.5 387.4 377.0 385.0 391.0 -5.9 1.6
June 414.4 387.7 378.3 385.4 390.9 -5.7 1.4
July 411.1 386.8 378.1 386.8 390.0 -5.1 0.8
August 406.7 384.3 377.8 388.5 389.0 -4.4 0.1
September 397.3 379.9 377.7 388.6      
October 394.2 379.7 378.1 389.4      
November 392.1 379.4 379.3 389.4      
December 391.8 379.0 379.7 389.7      
12-Month Average 407.6 385.9 378.1 386.0      
Jan-Aug Average 414.5 389.1 377.8 384.3 390.1 -5.9 1.5

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

R: Revised with updated filing by Mesa Airlines.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 4: Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, August 2008-2012

FTE numbers in thousands (000s)

Excel | CSV

  Network Low-Cost Regional All Passenger Airlines**
2008 276.1 62.9 60.3 406.7
2009 258.6 62.8 56.2 384.3
2010 256.1 64.0 52.2 377.8
2011 263.1 67.7 53.3 388.5
2012 262.4 69.4 52.1 389.0
Pct. Change 2008-2012 -5.0% 10.4% -13.7% -4.4%
Percent of Total Passenger Airline Employees in 2012 67.4% 17.8% 13.4%  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

Table 5: Year-to-Year Change in Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, August 2008-2012

Percent change in FTEs from the same month of the previous year

Excel | CSV

  Network Low-Cost Regional All Passenger Airlines**
2008 2.7 -16.4 0.3 -2.0
2009 -6.4 -0.2 -6.8 -5.6
2010 -0.9 2.0 -7.2 -1.7
2011 2.7 5.7 2.1 2.8
2012 -0.2 2.5 -2.3 0.1

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

Table 6: Top 10 Airlines, August 2012

FTE numbers in thousands (000s)

Excel | CSV

Rank Airline Total FTE Employees Carrier Group** Top 10 Airlines August 2011
1 United 81.9 Network Delta
2 Delta 77.1 Network American
3 American 63.8 Network United
4 Southwest 45.7 Low-Cost Southwest
5 US Airways 30.3 Network Continental
6 JetBlue 12.6 Low-Cost US Airways
7 American Eagle 10.0 Regional JetBlue
8 SkyWest 9.5 Regional American Eagle
9 Alaska 9.2 Network SkyWest
10 ExpressJet 9.2 Regional Alaska

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** See Table 9 for Network, Table 12 for Low-Cost and Table 15 for Regional

Table 7: Network Airlines - Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year**

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Excel | CSV

  2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.3 -2.3 0.3 1.5
February -6.4 -3.0 1.1 1.2
March -6.7 -3.1 1.5 1.2
April -6.5 -3.6 1.8 1.3
May -8.2 -1.9 2.1 1.3
June -7.8 -1.6 1.6 1.4
July -7.1 -1.6 2.1 0.8
August -6.4 -0.9 2.7 -0.2
September -5.0 0.3 2.7  
October -2.8 -1.2 2.7  
November -2.7 -0.7 2.6  
December -2.5 -0.5 2.3  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Table 8: Network Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month**

FTE numbers in thousands (000s)

Excel | CSV

Month 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 281.7 263.9 257.8 258.7 262.6 -6.8 1.5
February 282.6 264.6 256.8 259.5 262.8 -7.0 1.2
March 283.9 264.8 256.5 260.5 263.5 -7.2 1.2
April 283.7 265.2 255.7 260.3 263.7 -7.1 1.3
May 283.6 260.5 255.5 260.8 264.2 -6.9 1.3
June 282.8 260.8 256.6 260.7 264.3 -6.5 1.4
July 280.4 260.5 256.4 261.8 263.8 -5.9 0.8
August 276.1 258.6 256.1 263.1 262.4 -5.0 -0.2
September 268.4 254.9 255.8 262.6      
October 266.6 259.0 255.9 262.9      
November 265.2 258.1 256.4 263.1      
December 264.7 258.1 256.8 262.6      
12-Month Average 276.7 260.8 256.4 261.4      
Jan-Aug Average 281.9 262.4 256.4 260.7 263.4 -6.5 1.0

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 9: By Network Airline: Full-time Equivalent Employees*, August 2008-2012

(FTEs for August of each year. Ranked by August 2012 FTEs)

FTE numbers in thousands (000s)

Excel | CSV

Rank Airline 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change     
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 United*** 49.8 45.6 43.6 43.2 81.9 N/A N/A
  Continental*** 35.5 33.9 32.6 35.6 N/A N/A N/A
  UA/CO Combined 85.3 79.5 76.2 78.9 81.9 -3.9 3.9
2 Delta** 47.2 45.9 75.7 78.7 77.1 N/A -2.0
  Northwest** 28.8 25.4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
  DL/NW Combined 76.0 71.3 75.7 78.7 77.1 1.4 -2.0
3 American 72.5 67.8 65.7 66.3 63.8 -7.9 -3.8
4 US Airways 32.3 30.6 29.4 30.2 30.3 -5.9 0.3
5 Alaska 10.0 9.4 9.1 9.0 9.2 -7.7 3.1
  Total 276.1 258.6 256.1 263.1 262.4 -5.0 -0.2

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee

** Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2010.

*** United Airlines and Continental Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2012. Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 10: Low-Cost Airlines - Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Excel | CSV

Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -3.1 1.4 2.2 5.7
February -3.0 1.4 2.3 6.4
March 0.1 1.2 2.3 7.1
April 1.2 0.5 4.0 5.7
May 1.2 0.6 4.1 5.3
June 0.8 0.9 5.0 4.0
July 0.9 1.5 5.3 3.5
August -0.2 2.0 5.7 2.5
September -0.1 2.7 5.9  
October -0.4 3.0 6.2  
November -0.1 3.2 5.9  
December 0.0 3.3 6.6  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 11: Low-Cost Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month**

FTE numbers in thousands (000s)

Excel | CSV

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 64.7 62.7 63.6 65.0 68.7 6.1 5.7
February 64.9 63.0 63.8 65.3 69.5 7.0 6.4
March** 62.9 63.0 63.8 65.3 69.9 11.0 7.1
April*** 62.5 63.3 63.6 66.1 69.9 11.4 5.7
May 62.8 63.5 63.9 66.6 70.1 11.5 5.3
June 63.0 63.5 64.0 67.3 70.0 11.1 4.0
July 62.5 63.0 64.0 67.4 69.8 11.7 3.5
August 62.9 62.8 64.0 67.7 69.4 10.4 2.5
September 62.5 62.4 64.1 67.9      
October 62.7 62.4 64.3 68.3      
November 62.7 62.6 64.7 68.5      
December 62.6 62.6 64.7 68.9      
12-Month Average 63.1 62.9 64.0 67.0      
Jan-Aug Average 63.3 63.1 63.8 66.3 69.6 10.0 5.0

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Note: Percent changes and averages based on numbers prior to rounding.

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** ATA Airlines ceased operations on April 3, 2008 and stopped reporting employment data effective in March.

***SkyBus stopped reporting employment data effective in April 2008 resulting from its bankruptcy filing.

Table 12: By Low-Cost Carrier: Full-time Equivalent Employees,* August 2008-2012**

(FTEs for August of each year. Ranked by August 2012 FTEs)

Excel | CSV

Rank 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 Southwest** 35,308 34,660 34,768 36,737 45,749 N/A N/A
  AirTran 7,952 8,020 7,947 8,170 N/A N/A N/A
  WN/FL Combined 43,260 42,680 42,715 44,907 45,749 5.8 1.9
2 JetBlue 10,341 10,922 11,151 11,918 12,563 21.5 5.4
3 Frontier 4,577 4,337 4,847 4,994 4,056 -11.4 -18.8
4 Spirit 2,237 1,889 2,054 2,337 2,814 25.8 20.4
5 Virgin America 1,151 1,450 1,634 1,980 2,452 113.0 23.8
6 Allegiant 1,307 1,498 1,624 1,547 1,746 33.6 12.9
  Total 62,873 62,776 64,025 67,682 69,379 10.3 2.5

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways merged and began reporting combined numbers in April 2012.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 13: Regional Airlines - Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

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Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.0 -8.5 0.4 0.1
February -4.9 -9.8 0.9 0.8
March -4.9 -10.1 1.8 0.2
April -7.4 -9.3 2.1 -1.5
May -7.7 -8.0 1.6 -2.2
June -7.2 -7.7 1.5 -2.5
July -6.9 -7.5 1.9 -3.3
August -6.8 -7.2 2.1 -2.3
September -5.7 -6.6 2.0  
October -10.1 0.5 2.1  
November -7.5 -1.0 0.6  
December -8.9 -0.3 1.5  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 14: Regional Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

FTE numbers in thousands (000s)

Excel | CSV

2008** 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 61.1 57.4 52.5 52.8 52.8 -13.6 0.1
February 60.5 57.6 52.0 52.4 52.8 -12.7 0.8
March 60.2 57.3 51.5 52.5 52.6 -12.7 0.2
April 61.3 56.8 51.5 52.6 51.8 -15.5 -1.5
May 61.4 56.6 52.1 52.9 51.7 -15.7 -2.2
June 61.0 56.6 52.2 53.0 51.7 -15.3 -2.5
July 60.7 56.5 52.2 53.2 51.5 -15.2 -3.3
August 60.3 56.2 52.2 53.3 52.1 -13.7 -2.3
September 59.4 56.0 52.3 53.4      
October 58.0 52.1 52.4 53.5      
November 57.5 53.2 52.7 53.0      
December 57.9 52.7 52.5 53.3      
12-Month Average 59.9 55.8 52.2 53.0      
Jan-Aug Average 60.8 56.9 52.0 52.8 52.1 -14.3 -1.3

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Lynx Airlines began reporting in February 2008. Colgan Airlines began reporting in April 2008. Trans States Airlines no longer met reporting requirements beginning in April 2008.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 15: By Regional Airline: Full-time Equivalent Employees*, August 2008-2012

(FTEs for August of each year. Ranked by August 2012 FTEs)

Excel | CSV

Rank   2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 American Eagle 9,561 8,997 9,269 9,921 9,953 4.1 0.3
2 SkyWest 9,173 8,558 9,078 9,401 9,450 3.0 0.5
3 ExpressJet# 6,852 5,244 5,364 5,362 9,238 N/A N/A
  Atlantic Southeast# 4,444 3,626 3,628 3,841 N/A N/A N/A
  XE/EV Combined 11,296 8,870 8,992 9,203 9,238 -18.2 0.4
4 Pinnacle** 3,580 3,348 3,434 3,657 4,504 N/A N/A
  Mesaba** 3,453 3,921 2,185 2,064 N/A N/A N/A
  9E/XJ Combined 7,033 7,269 5,619 5,721 4,504 -36.0 -21.3
5 Horizon 3,586 3,222 2,876 2,832 2,748 -23.4 -3.0
6 Air Wisconsin 2,938 2,566 2,545 2,513 2,587 -11.9 2.9
7 Republic*** 1,269 1,595 1,974 2,102 1,987 56.6 -5.5
8 Shuttle America 1,125 1,393 1,255 1,587 1,866 65.9 17.6
9 Mesa 3,033 2,655 2,052 1,908 1,732 -42.9 -9.2
10 Comair 5,850 5,303 2,547 2,092 1,513 -74.1 -27.7
11 Executive 1,693 1,767 1,814 1,804 1,350 -20.3 -25.2
12 Chautauqua**** N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,282 N/A N/A
13 Compass 690 858 982 1,030 1,098 59.1 6.6
14 PSA 1,039 992 1,010 1,026 1,071 3.1 4.4
15 GoJet 383 504 560 566 1,008 163.2 78.1
16 Colgan 1,333 1,279 1,390 1,582 695 -47.9 -56.1
17 Lynx## 349 410 219 N/A N/A N/A N/A
  Total 60,351 56,238 52,179 53,284 52,079 -13.7 -2.3

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Pinnacle Airlines and Mesaba Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

*** Effective with November 2009 reporting, Republic Airlines' employment numbers include FTE's from Midwest Airlines. Midwest employment data were formerly included in the "Other Airlines" category.

**** Effective July 2012 Chautauqua Airlines began reporting employment data.

# ExpressJet Airlines and Atlantic Southeast Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

## Effective the end of March 2011, Lynx Airlines ceased operations.

N/A: Carriers did not meet the standard for filing, was no longer operating, merged with another operating carrier or failed to file. See previous notes.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.