Table 11
U.S. Maritime Security Initiatives

Table 11
U.S. Maritime Security Initiatives

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Initiative Year Implemented Responsible Agency Description Progress to Date
Automated Targeting System (ATS) 1999 CBP ATS is a mathematical model that uses weighted rules to assign a risk score to arriving cargo shipments based on shipping information. In use.
Container Security Initiative (CSI) 2002 CBP CBP staff work with participating foreign ports to target and examine high-risk container cargo abroad. 58 foreign ports now participate in CSI, comprising the origin for 86 percent of all imported containerized cargo (USDHS CBP 2010).
Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) 2001 CBP DHS CBP works on a voluntary basis with private firms, contract logistics carriers and others to improve the security of their firm's supply chains in exchange for various benefits, including a reduced likelihood that the containers of participating firms will be examined. As of March 2008, C-TPAT had more than 8,200 certified members, accounting for 80 percent of the value of imported goods (USDHS CBP 2008). In a 2007 survey firms reported that prior to joining C-TPAT nearly half did not have security plans in place for their supply chains (USDHS CBP 2007).
Megaports Initiative 2003 U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Radiation detection equipment has been installed at key foreign ports, for foreign governmental personnel to use in scanning containers bound for the U.S. and our allies. As of October 2010, implemented at 27 ports; 16 others are in the implementation process (USDOE, NNSA 2010).
Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade (SAFE) Framework of Standards 2005 CBP CBP, along with international partners, developed the SAFE Framework, a set of cargo security practice principles based on CBP's C-TPAT and CSI programs. Including the United States, 157 countries have signed letters of intent for implementing the SAFE Framework.
Secure Freight Initiative (SFI) 2006 USDOE, CBP Program at select ports to scan 100 percent of U.S.-bound container cargo for nuclear and radiological materials. As of April 2010, SFI was operational at 5 ports, and had ceased operating at 2 (GAO 2010).
Domestic Port Radiation 2007 USDHS Program to scan 100 percent of containers arriving in the United States with radiation detection equipment prior to leaving a domestic port. As of April 2009, CBP had 409 radiation portal monitors deployed at domestic ports, through which approximately 98 percent of all arriving containers passed through.
Importer Security Filing and Additional Carrier Requirements (10+2) 2009 CBP The importer is responsible for supplying CBP with 10 shipping data elements 24 hours prior to lading while the vessel carrier is required to provide 2 data elements in addition to those previously required. In place since 2009.

SOURCES: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, based mostly on Government Accountability Office (GAO). 2009B. Feasibility and Cost- Benefit Analysis Would, assist DHS and Congress in, assessing and Implementing the Requirement to Scan 100 Percent of U.S.-Bound Containers, October 30. Available at www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-12, as of Sept. 24, 2010; except where noted.