In Virginia, the CFS measured $115 billion of goods shipments weighing 289 million tons. Virginia accounted for approximately 2 percent of the value and 3 percent of the weight of total U.S. shipments. See attached table. The CFS data cover shipments by establishments in mining, manufacturing, wholesale, and selected retail and service industries. The data exclude most shipments of crude oil; therefore, the totals and percentages do not fully reflect the contribution of pipeline shipments.
The major commodities shipped by establishments in Virginia vary when measured by value and weight. The top commodity originating in Virginia by value was food or kindred products. Other important commodities by value were: chemicals or allied products; electrical machinery, equipment, or supplies; transportation equipment; and machinery, including computers. The main commodities by weight were: coal; nonmetallic minerals; petroleum or coal products; clay, concrete, glass, or stone products; and lumber or wood products, excluding furniture.
Local transportation of freight is important to Virginia's commerce. The CFS shows that in 1993, about 37 percent of the value and 72 percent of the weight of total shipments from Virginia were shipped to destinations within the state. About 27 percent of the value and about 60 percent of the weight of all shipments were between places less than 50 miles apart. In comparison, about 30 percent of the value and 56 percent of the weight of total U.S. shipments were between places less than 50 miles apart. In Virginia, about 40 percent of the value of shipments and 74 percent of the weight of shipments were between places less than 100 miles apart.
Approximately 63 percent of the value and 28 percent of the weight of all shipments from Virginia went to other states. Some of the most important destination states by value of shipments were: North Carolina, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and California. Some of the most important destinations by weight of shipments were: North Carolina, Maryland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Tennessee.
Most commodities were moved by trucks, about 81 percent of the value and 70 percent of the weight. Rail accounted for about 4 percent of the value and 17 percent of the weight of shipments. The CFS data confirm the rising importance of parcel, U.S. postal, and courier services that have emerged in recent years. In 1993, this mode of transport was used to ship $11 billion or 10 percent of the value of all shipments in Virginia. In comparison, about 9 percent of the value of total U.S. shipments were moved by this mode.
The Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) is a comprehensive effort to learn where and how goods are shipped in the U.S. The CFS measures shipments of commodities by establishments with paid employees and engaged in manufacturing, mining, wholesale trade, or selected retail and services industries. Prior commodity surveys covered shipments only by manufacturing firms. Commodity flows are estimated for a universe of approximately 900,000 establishments.
Data collected on individual shipments include total value, total weight, commodity type, modes of transport, domestic origin and destination; data for export shipments include the city and country of destination, mode and port of exit. Information is also be obtained on whether shipments are containerized or a hazardous material. Some firms provided data concerning on-site shipping facilities and access to shipping facilities, plus data on ownership and leasing of transportation equipment.
The CFS is conducted by the Bureau of the Census as part of the Economic Census. Funding and technical guidance is provided by the U.S. Department of Transportation. Initiated for 1993, the CFS is scheduled for 1997 and every 5 years thereafter for years ending in 2 and 7. Commodity surveys were conducted between 1963 and 1982, but data for 1982 were not published. No data were collected for 1987. Participants will report for a sample of shipments during a 2-week period each quarter during the reporting year.
The CFS is a mail-out/mail-back survey of 200,000 sampled employer establishments in selected industries. Establishments were selected by stratified sample, with strata based on geographic location and industry. Geographic strata are the 89 National Transportation Analysis Regions(NTARs), which provide nationwide coverage and are aggregations of Bureau of Economic Analysis economic areas. Within the strata, all establishments with annualized employment above a specified cutoff were selected with certainty, and the remaining smaller establishments were sampled with probability proportional to annualized payroll.
For 1993, each sampled establishment reported on a sample of individual shipments during a 2 week period in each calendar quarter. In addition, about 20,000 establishments will provide information on transportation facilities and arrangements in their final reporting period.
For further information about survey design and printed products, contact the Commodity Flow Survey Branch, Services Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233, or by calling 301/457-2805 or 2114. For information on related data programs and studies, contact the Bureau of Transportation Statistics at 202/366-DATA for voice, 202/366-3640 for fax, or CFS@BTS.GOV for e-mail.