Table 4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for Metropolitan Area of Origin: 2007

Table 4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for Metropolitan Area of Origin: 2007

Estimates are based on data from the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. Because of rounding, estimates may not be additive.

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All Modes

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 79,852 100 114,242 100 32,945 100 268 11.0 - 14.2 - 15.2 - 30.4
Less than 50 lbs 1,035 1.3 12 - 2 - 307 18.8 0.4 32.6 - 35.6 - 35.1
50 - 99 lbs 264 0.3 9 - 1 - S 32.9 0.1 29.8 - 25.0 - S
100 - 499 lbs 447 0.6 37 - 4 - 117 7.9 0.1 12.6 - 11.6 - 25.5
500 - 749 lbs 85 0.1 14 - 2 - 119 17.4 - 12.2 - 26.8 - 22.7
750 - 999 lbs 77 0.1 13 - 2 - 140 29.9 - 22.1 - 30.9 - 24.1
1,000 - 9,999 lbs 1,293 1.6 672 0.6 72 0.2 S 19.7 0.9 46.0 0.6 19.7 0.1 S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs 14,849 18.6 13,148 11.5 4,349 13.2 312 21.8 6.0 31.3 5.4 24.5 4.6 18.4
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 577 0.7 2,142 1.9 221 0.7 87 24.5 0.2 32.1 0.6 27.0 0.2 30.5
More than 100,000 lbs 61,224 76.7 98,196 86.0 28,293 85.9 651 16.9 7.0 17.6 6.1 18.1 4.5 18.4

Single modes

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 71,691 100 100,513 100 25,477 100 182 11.1 - 15.3 - 14.2 - 24.3
Less than 50 lbs 313 0.4 6 - - - 104 24.3 0.2 34.0 - 39.7 - 13.7
50 - 99 lbs 92 0.1 6 - - - S 31.7 0.1 25.7 - 41.1 - S
100 - 499 lbs 302 0.4 31 - 3 - 106 18.5 0.1 13.0 - 18.8 - 23.2
500 - 749 lbs 85 0.1 14 - 2 - 119 17.4 - 12.2 - 26.8 - 22.7
750 - 999 lbs 77 0.1 13 - 2 - 140 29.9 - 22.1 - 30.9 - 24.1
1,000 - 9,999 lbs 1,208 1.7 667 0.7 70 0.3 S 21.7 1.1 46.4 1.2 20.3 0.2 S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs 14,703 20.5 13,004 12.9 4,269 16.8 309 22.1 6.3 31.7 5.8 25.0 4.5 18.4
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 555 0.8 2,102 2.1 184 0.7 78 25.5 0.2 32.6 0.6 19.1 0.1 31.4
More than 100,000 lbs 54,356 75.8 84,668 84.2 20,947 82.2 650 17.4 7.4 19.1 6.9 17.8 4.5 18.6

Truck4

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 20,411 100 25,560 100 3,926 100 131 18.9 - 26.5 - 20.2 - 32.4
Less than 50 lbs 308 1.5 5 - - - 68 24.3 0.9 27.4 - 47.4 - 17.3
50 - 99 lbs 91 0.4 6 - - - 56 31.8 0.4 25.8 - 44.9 - 24.4
100 - 499 lbs 290 1.4 31 0.1 3 0.1 101 19.7 0.3 13.0 - 19.8 - 25.5
500 - 749 lbs 85 0.4 14 0.1 2 - 119 17.4 0.2 12.2 - 26.8 - 22.7
750 - 999 lbs 77 0.4 13 0.1 2 - 140 29.9 0.3 22.1 - 30.9 - 24.1
1,000 - 9,999 lbs 1,205 5.9 667 2.6 69 1.8 S 21.8 1.9 46.5 2.2 20.4 0.6 S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs 13,781 67.5 12,595 49.3 3,545 90.3 266 20.9 6.0 31.4 7.9 21.8 4.5 22.0
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 504 2.5 2,020 7.9 131 3.3 64 28.5 0.6 34.0 2.7 20.8 3.1 40.1
More than 100,000 lbs 4,070 19.9 10,208 39.9 173 4.4 168 46.0 6.3 40.7 9.5 27.2 1.6 23.1

For-hire truck

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 12,882 100 10,647 100 3,497 100 319 21.8 - 28.6 - 21.5 - 18.9
Less than 50 lbs 72 0.6 1 - - - 179 49.4 0.2 34.2 - 20.1 - 41.3
50 - 99 lbs 9 0.1 - - S S S 49.0 0.1 46.6 - S S S
100 - 499 lbs 97 0.8 8 0.1 2 0.1 287 27.5 0.3 38.7 - 25.0 - 27.8
500 - 749 lbs 35 0.3 4 - 1 - 313 39.9 0.2 45.3 - 29.5 - 47.9
750 - 999 lbs S S 2 - 1 - 626 S S 24.7 - 46.1 - 24.7
1,000 - 9,999 lbs 457 3.5 109 1.0 54 1.5 421 21.0 1.0 34.0 0.3 24.1 0.3 26.8
10,000 - 49,999 lbs 11,155 86.6 8,221 77.2 3,225 92.2 384 23.5 3.7 30.5 5.6 23.3 4.5 20.3
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 468 3.6 1,808 17.0 121 3.5 S 29.3 0.7 38.8 5.4 22.0 3.9 S
More than 100,000 lbs 565 4.4 494 4.6 92 2.6 335 36.5 4.0 32.2 3.5 37.2 1.9 19.8

Private truck

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 7,529 100 14,913 100 429 100 50 27.9 - 30.8 - 13.9 - 25.3
Less than 50 lbs 236 3.1 5 - S S 52 24.1 3.2 29.1 - S S 23.3
50 - 99 lbs 82 1.1 6 - - 0.1 53 29.4 0.9 25.0 - 49.5 - 20.4
100 - 499 lbs 193 2.6 24 0.2 1 0.2 52 27.4 1.4 18.8 0.1 28.9 0.1 22.7
500 - 749 lbs 51 0.7 10 0.1 - 0.1 41 17.4 0.3 15.6 0.1 19.1 - 17.6
750 - 999 lbs 52 0.7 12 0.1 1 0.2 75 42.5 0.6 25.4 0.1 48.6 0.1 25.5
1,000 - 9,999 lbs 747 9.9 S S 16 3.7 S 33.4 5.3 S S 40.1 2.3 S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs 2,626 34.9 4,374 29.3 320 74.6 65 21.1 7.3 34.2 11.6 15.0 7.6 34.6
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 36 0.5 211 1.4 9 2.2 43 33.4 0.5 39.7 1.7 33.5 0.7 39.9
More than 100,000 lbs S S 9,713 65.1 81 18.9 S S S 42.6 14.3 39.4 7.8 S

Rail

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 12,964 100 14,524 100 9,073 100 873 14.3 - 25.5 - 17.0 - 16.4
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs 887 6.8 385 2.7 S S 1,750 46.0 3.0 45.2 1.5 S S 14.7
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 35 0.3 56 0.4 53 0.6 928 18.3 0.2 29.6 0.5 46.6 0.5 18.5
More than 100,000 lbs 12,042 92.9 14,082 97.0 8,328 91.8 739 14.5 2.7 26.4 1.3 15.1 2.2 17.5

Water

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 6,197 100 11,166 100 7,634 100 1,290 27.9 - 36.1 - 43.6 - 24.0
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
50,000 - 99,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
More than 100,000 lbs 6,163 99.5 11,144 99.8 7,603 99.6 1,222 25.4 0.2 34.2 0.1 42.3 0.2 28.6

Shallow draft

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 3,134 100 S S S S 224 33.0 - S S S S 29.8
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
50,000 - 99,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
More than 100,000 lbs 3,130 99.9 S S S S 212 33.0 0.1 S S S S 30.2

Deep draft

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 3,063 100 4,224 100 6,665 100 1,892 38.2 - 36.3 - 38.2 - 29.7
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
50,000 - 99,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
More than 100,000 lbs 3,034 99.1 4,206 99.6 6,635 99.5 2,254 34.1 0.4 31.3 0.2 33.5 0.3 29.3

Air (incl truck and air)

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 19 100 - 100 - 100 S 44.2 - 34.4 - 35.2 - S
Less than 50 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
50 - 99 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
100 - 499 lbs S S S S S S 1,477 S S S S S S 7.2
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs S S S S S S 1,060 S S S S S S 11.5
10,000 - 49,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50,000 - 99,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
More than 100,000 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Pipeline5

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 32,100 100 49,263 100 S S S 16.0 - 16.7 - S S S
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs 3 - 3 - S S S 28.0 - 11.2 - S S S
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 16 0.1 26 0.1 S S S 33.3 0.1 30.2 0.1 S S S
More than 100,000 lbs 32,081 99.9 49,234 99.9 S S S 16.1 0.1 16.7 0.1 S S S

Multiple modes

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 7,760 100 13,425 100 7,398 100 762 27.2 - 30.0 - 45.2 - 17.2
Less than 50 lbs 628 8.1 3 - 2 - 777 30.0 8.7 26.6 4.0 48.1 6.0 17.5
50 - 99 lbs S S 1 - - - 426 S S 35.5 4.3 38.0 3.4 39.0
100 - 499 lbs 111 1.4 2 - 1 - 501 42.4 0.4 24.9 2.2 25.0 1.2 33.0
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
1,000 - 9,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S 73 0.5 64 0.9 842 S S 49.6 0.5 44.5 0.2 49.8
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 15 0.2 S S S S 1,265 43.5 1.5 S S S S 39.4
More than 100,000 lbs 6,719 86.6 13,320 99.2 7,294 98.6 714 27.6 3.4 28.1 0.5 44.4 0.9 25.1

Parcel, U.S.P.S. or courier

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 876 100 5 100 2 100 762 35.7 - 22.4 - 46.8 - 17.5
Less than 50 lbs 628 71.6 3 52.3 2 61.9 777 30.0 4.8 26.6 5.1 48.1 7.4 17.5
50 - 99 lbs S S 1 16.8 - 14.1 426 S S 35.5 4.2 38.0 5.3 39.0
100 - 499 lbs 107 12.2 S S 1 24.0 489 44.8 3.3 S S 29.6 6.6 34.2
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10,000 - 49,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50,000 - 99,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
More than 100,000 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Truck and rail

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 317 100 422 100 357 100 1,071 26.9 - 33.3 - 43.7 - 19.3
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S S S S S 1,561 S S S S S S 20.9
50,000 - 99,999 lbs 14 4.5 S S S S 1,387 41.8 12.1 S S S S 41.4
More than 100,000 lbs 248 78.2 372 88.0 278 77.8 865 30.8 5.8 29.9 3.5 40.4 6.1 25.5

Truck and water

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total S S S S S S 137 S S S S S S 7.3
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
1,000 - 9,999 lbs S S - - - - 154 S S 27.0 6.2 19.1 6.2 8.3
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S S S S S 137 S S S S S S 2.6
50,000 - 99,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
More than 100,000 lbs S S S S S S 131 S S S S S S 14.2

Rail and water

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 3,235 100 7,659 100 6,324 100 943 22.8 - 37.9 - 48.4 - 27.8
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
50,000 - 99,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
More than 100,000 lbs 3,226 99.7 7,649 99.9 6,306 99.7 722 22.7 0.1 37.9 0.1 48.4 0.1 33.0

Other multiple modes

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total 1,933 100 S S S S 119 42.6 - S S S S 13.3
Less than 50 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
50 - 99 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
100 - 499 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500 - 749 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S S S S S 112 S S S S S S 10.1
50,000 - 99,999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
More than 100,000 lbs 1,857 96.1 2,599 98.7 S S 136 37.7 5.8 45.4 1.8 S S 18.0

Other and unknown modes

Shipment Weight Value Tons Ton-miles2 Average miles
per shipment
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per shipment CV
2007
(million $)
Percent of total 2007
(thousands)
Percent of total 2007
(millions)
Percent of
total
CV3 Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of % CV Standard Error of %
Total S S S S S S 54 S S S S S S 43.4
Less than 50 lbs S S S S S S 55 S S S S S S 27.8
50 - 99 lbs S S S S S S 20 S S S S S S 46.8
100 - 499 lbs S S S S S S 43 S S S S S S 38.4
500 - 749 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
750 - 999 lbs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,000 - 9,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
10,000 - 49,999 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
50,000 - 99,999 lbs S S S S S S 62 S S S S S S 26.5
More than 100,000 lbs S S S S S S S S S S S S S S

KEY: S = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. - = Zero or Less than half the unit shown; thus, it has been rounded to zero.

1 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) geographic areas were drawn from a subset of Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs) and Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MeSAs) as defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). However, CFS metropolitan areas are divided into their state parts when they include more than one state. In addition, the CFS also utilizes a unique geography referred to as, "remainder of state," to represent those areas of a state not contained within a separately published metropolitan area for the CFS (as opposed to not part of any Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) as defined by OMB). Because of the differences in the CFS geography, as compared to OMB defined geography, caution should be exercised when comparing CFS estimates to other estimates of similar geography.
2 Ton-miles estimates are based on estimated distances traveled along a modeled transportation network.
3 Coefficient of Variation.
4 ""Truck"" as a single mode includes any shipment that was made by private truck only, by for-hire truck only, or by a combination of private and for-hire truck.
5 Estimates for pipeline exclude shipments of crude petroleum.

NOTES: Value-of-shipment estimates are reported in current prices. Estimated measures of sampling variability for each estimate known as coefficients of variation (CV) are also provided in these tables. More information on sampling error, confidentiality protection, nonsampling error, sample design, and definitions may be found at http://www.bts.gov/publications/commodity_flow_survey/
Rows are not shown if all cells for that particular mode have no data. For example, since Denver-Aurora-Boulder by "Water" has no data for any shipment weight group, the entire mode of "Water" for that area was removed from this table. However, if a mode has at least one row of data for one of the shipment weight groups, then the entire mode is shown even though there may be rows absent of data within that mode. For example, Denver-Aurora-Boulder by "Other and unknown modes" has a row absent of data for the shipment size of "More than 100,000 lbs" but does have data for the other shipment weight groups under that mode so it will be shown in its entirety.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics and U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census: Transportation Commodity Flow Survey, December 2009.