End Notes

End Notes

1 These new national estimates were jointly developed by the RITA Bureau of Transportation Statistics and the FHWA Office of Freight Management and Operations as part of the Freight Analysis Framework II and the Commodity Flow Survey data program.

2 This projection is based on the 1998 benchmark reported by the Federal Highway Administration's Freight Analysis Framework.

3 This includes all aspects of transportation, including the movement of goods and the purchase of all transportation-related products and services as well as the movement of people.

4 This report is more complete than the April 2004 Freight Shipments in America preliminary highlights report that was based on the preliminary 2002 CFS data. In this report estimates of the nation's freight shipments differ from the initial estimates. For instance, CFS' share of total shipments in this report are lower than the preliminary estimates due to the addition of estimates for previously uncovered sectors, such as construction, retail, services, and municipal solid waste.

5 As explained in box A, the CFS covers most but not all commercial freight activity in the United States . BTS and Federal Highway Administration supplemented the CFS data with other data sources to create a detailed picture of the nation's commercial freight flows.

6 2002 is the most recent year for which comprehensive nationwide freight estimates are available for all modes of transportation and for local, intercity, interstate, and U.S.-international freight shipments. See boxes A and B for additional information.

7 Most of the findings presented in this section are based on the CFS only data. Detailed information on type of commodity is not available for all of the supplementary data. Where the commodity information is available (i.e., crude petroleum, municipal solid waste, imports and exports) the report uses the data in the discussions.

8 The commodities are based on the two-digit Standard Classification of Transported Goods (SCTG) coding system.

9 While BTS has aggregate estimates of the major missing pieces, such as imports, crude petroleum, logging, and some of the in-scope sectors that are underrepresented in the CFS, further analysis of the commodity level out-of-scope retail, service, and construction sectors is needed to determine how much of each commodity in these sectors were transported. BTS and FHWA are continuing to research the supplemental data.

10 Coal from Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia is consumed almost entirely east of the Mississippi River.

11 The hazardous materials classes are: Class 1 Explosives, Class 2 Gases, Class 3 Flammable liquids, Class 4 Flammable solids, Class 5 Oxidizers and organic peroxides, Class 6 Toxic materials and infectious substances, Class 7 Radioactive materials, Class 8 Corrosive materials, and Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous goods.

12 Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Transportation Security: Issues 109th Congress. http://www.mipt.org/pdf/CRS_IB10135.pdf

13 These findings are based on the CFS only data. Distance of shipment information is not available for the non-CFS data.

14 These findings are based on the CFS only data. Shipment size information is not available for the non-CFS data.

15 These are carriers that transport only cargo, unlike passenger air carriers that mostly carry people but also carry goods, such as expedited packages, mail, etc., in their aircraft cargo holds.

16 In this report, the term "multimodal" refers to shipments transported by a combination of modes, including parcel, courier, and postal services, truck and rail, truck and water, rail and water, and other modal combinations. Multimodal also could be used to describe air-truck combinations, but, because nearly all air shipments also involve truck before and after the air leg of the shipment, it is common to refer to air as a single mode. As used in this report, multimodal is different from intermodal which is used in this report to describe the traditional truck and rail combination only.

17 Miles of rail roads is the aggregate length of roadway, excluding yard tracks and sidings, and does not reflect the fact that a mile of road may include two, three, or more parallel tracks. The number of rail tracks owned declined from 271,000 miles in 1980 to under 169,000 in 2004.

18 FHWA's Freight Analysis Framework, a database and policy analysis tool, projects that between 1998 and 2020, U.S. freight tonnage is expected to grow by 70 percent and the value of freight shipments is expected to more than triple to nearly $30 trillion (USDOT FHWA 2004, Freight Facts and Figures 2004).

19 The relative modal shares of ton-miles depend on how "multimodal" shipments are measured. Rail moves a slightly larger share when intermodal truck-rail shipments are counted in its totals.

20 This figure differs from the composite and CFS figures in tables 1, 3, and 6 because they represent only Class I railroads. U.S. Class I railroads are line haul freight railroads with operating revenue in excess of $278 million. In 2004, the seven U.S. Class I railroads were: BNSF Railway, CSX Transportation, Grand Trunk Corporation, Kansas City Southern Railway, Norfolk Southern Railroad, Soo Line Railroad, and Union Pacific Railroad (AAR 2005). The Class I railroads accounted for about 71 percent of industry road miles operated and 93 percent of the total rail freight revenues.

21 This is a measure of the number of tons hauled and the miles traveled during an average hour of freight train's operation. The peak for net ton-miles per train-hour was in 1991 when the industry averaged about 66,300 ton-miles every train hour (AAR 2004).

22 Miles of rail roadway have been declining for decades. In 2004, Class I railroads operated about 99,000 miles of rail roadways, down from about 160,000 miles in 1980.

23 Freight handled by land modes accounted for 22 percent of the overall weight and 28 percent of the value of U.S. international merchandise trade. Air cargo accounted for less than one percent of the weight but 26 percent of the value (USDOT BTS 2004).

24 A TEU is the standard unit for counting containers of various lengths and describing the capacity of container vessels.

25 A large number of containers also cross the land border crossing ports by truck and rail.

26 Besides liquid pipelines, there are pipelines that carry natural gas. Liquid pipelines sometimes carry gaseous products such as natural gas liquids, including propane, that are often referred to as highly volatile liquids (HVLs). These products are gases at atmospheric temperatures and pressure but liquids under the pressures of pipelines. Non-liquid pipelines handle almost all natural gas transmission and distribution (AOPL 2004a).

27 The Association of Oil Pipe Lines estimates that pipelines accounted for about 68 percent of the ton-miles produced from transporting crude petroleum and petroleum products in the United States in 2002 (AOPL 2004:b).

28 Anchorage International Airport (ANC) is a major hub for international air trade to Asian countries, with most flights from the United States destined for Asia or flights from Asia destined for the United States making an operational stop at ANC. A 1996 U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) rule permits air carriers from foreign countries (except those from the United Kingdom and Japan ) to conduct expanded cargo activities at Anchorage. These activities include cargo transfer from foreign carrier's aircraft to any of its other aircraft, transfer from a foreign carrier to any U.S. air carrier, and transfer from one foreign carrier to another foreign carrier. (ANC website http://www.dot.state.ak.us/anc/Management/Marketing/usdot.htm.)

29 Due to lack of detailed modal information for the non-CFS shipments it was not possible to assign any of these shipments, that were out of scope of the CFS and that may have moved multimodally, to the multimodal category. Hence the CFS-only estimates presented here almost certainly underestimate the true level of multimodal freight activity in the United States .

30 In this report, the term "multimodal" refers to shipments transported by a combination of modes, including parcel, courier, and postal services, truck and rail, truck and water, rail and water, and other modal combinations. As used in this report, multimodal is different from intermodal which is used in this report to describe the traditional truck and rail combination only.

31 An example of an air-only shipment is when a manufactured aircraft flies from the production plant to the purchaser.

32 This section uses the Surface Transportation Board's Rail Waybill Sample data on truck-rail intermodal because the 2002 CFS truck-rail data did not meet publication standards. Multimodal shipments may be underreported in the CFS because shippers, who report on the characteristics of shipments, may not always know whether the shipment is transported by more than one mode.

33 This figure represents the number containers of any size not the number of standardized twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) used elsewhere in this report.

34 Another major firm in the parcel industry, DHL, does not release its shipment figures to the public.

35 UPS data prior to 2000 were unavailable.

36 These findings are based on the CFS only data. Origin and destination information is not available for the non-CFS component of the composite estimates.

37 In this report, multi-state metropolitan areas are kept separate. For example, the Illinois and Michigan parts of the Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City metro area and the Kansas and Missouri parts of the Kansas City, MO-KS metropolitan statistical area (MeSA) are not combined.

38 In 2002, there were 361 metropolitan statistical areas (MAs) in the United States as officially designated by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget in December 2003. The largest 64 MAs, covered in the CFS, accounted for roughly 61 percent (163 million) of the 269 million U.S. population in 2002 (USDOC Census 2005). Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2003 (CBSA-EST2003-01). Internet Release Date: June 7, 2005.

39 The U.S. international data presented in this section are based on official U.S. merchandise trade data and are not from the CFS. Summarized imports and export trade data are incorporated into the composite estimates and described in box B.

40 Inflation-adjusted chained 2000 dollars data on U.S.-international goods trade are not available from the Bureau of Economic Analysis for 1980 on the National Income and Products Accounts (NIPA) basis. The NIPA basis data for goods reflects adjustments for statistical differences and balance of payments. See Table 4.2.6 at http://www.bea.gov/bea/dn/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N#S4, available as of September 2005.

41 The truck and rail container information presented here represent actual count of container equipment, not twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), as often used to describe maritime containers.

42 Ranking of the leading freight gateways is based on the value of traded goods instead of the weight because weight data for land exports are not collected by U.S. authorities.

43 The performing organizations for this project were MacroSys Research and Technology and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who worked under the management supervision of BTS and FHWA.