Table 2 Major Characteristics of All Travel Surveys Used in This Paper

Table 2
Major Characteristics of All Travel Surveys Used in This Paper

  Fieldwork period (month/year) Age group (years) Sample size (# HH interviews) Response rate (percent) Degree of travel reporting: survey-to-total travel (percent PKMT) (all modes) Major survey characteristics 
#HH percent population
Australia N/A ≥ 9 18,000 0.12 N/A 76 Self-completion, mail questionnaire. No further information available.
Austria 10–12/96 ≥ 6 12,564 0.56 73.4 N/A Self-completion, mail questionnaire; tel. interview if missing written responses; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips; trips only collected for workdays; travel diary.
France  3/81–2/82 ≥ 6 6,619 0.03 87.0 59.0 Travel diary and car diary (odometer reading after each trip); no walk trips reported on weekends; reported trip distance up to 80 km; con
5/93–4/94 ≥ 6 14,213 0.06 70.9 58.3 Personal interview with one household member; car travel diary; no walk trips reported on weekends; reported trip distance up to 80 km; confirming zero trips.
Great Britain   7/75–6/76 ≥ 3 9,589 0.05 65.4 83.4 Initial interview-self-completion questionnaire-second interview; travel diary.
7/85–6/86 ≥ 0 10,266 0.05 75.6 78.2 Initial interview-self-completion questionnaire-second interview; travel diary.
1/89–12/91 ≥ 0 10,752 0.05 79.8 61.2 Initial interview-self-completion questionnaire-second interview; travel diary.
7/94–6/97 ≥ 0 9,960 0.04 73.4 72.2 CAPI; travel diary; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
Japan  N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Survey limited to urban areas; trip distance only reported for automobile travel.
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Survey limited to urban areas; trip distance only reported for automobile travel. 
Netherlands   1–12/85 > 12 9,287 0.17 61.1 109.6 CATI; travel diary; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
1–12/90 > 12 10,139 0.17 55.2 101.9 CATI; travel diary; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
1–12/95 ≥ 0 68,433 1.05 53.7 95.8 CATI; travel diary; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
Norway  9/84–9/85 ≥ 13 4,320a 0.10 77.1 101.8 Personal interview; travel diary; confirming zero trips.
9/91–9/92 ≥ 13 5,992a 0.14 67.5 103.7 CATI; travel diary; confirming zero trips.
Singapore N/A ≥ 4 2,665 0.34 34.8 N/A No trip distance reported; travel diary; only includes walk trips greater than 100 meters.
Switzerland   5–6/84 ≥ 14 3,513 0.13 58.2b 69.8 Self-completion, mail questionnaire; travel diary; confirming zero trips.
5–6/89 ≥ 14 20,472 0.73 63.0b 87.7 Self-completion, mail questionnaire; travel diary; confirming zero trips.
1–12/94 ≥ 6 16,570 0.55 74.8 74.2 CATI; travel diary; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
United States   N/A ≥ 5 17,949 0.02 85.3 70.0 In-home interviews; no travel diary; no proxy interviews.
2/83–1/84 ≥ 5 6,438 0.01 93.3 74.1 In-home interviews; no travel diary; no proxy interviews.
3/90–2/91 ≥ 5 21,869 0.02 83.6 72.7 In-home interviews; no travel diary; no proxy interviews.
5/95–6/96 ≥ 5 42,015 0.04 50.8 94.7 CATI; travel diary; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
Only travel day file considered here.
West Germany   6/75–5/77 ≥ 10 19,906 0.02 71.9 106.7 Self-completion, mail questionnaire; travel diary; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
1–12/82 ≥ 10 15,582 0.01 65.7 110.3 Self-completion, mail questionnaire; travel diary; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
2/89–1/90 ≥ 10c 24,849 0.02 64.0 83.8 Forms distributed and collected in person; travel diary; in-home interview if required; telephone interview if missing written responses; proxy interviews; confirming zero trips.
Delhi Suburbs N/A  705–977  1.5–2.3  N/A  Personal interviews with whole household (prime income-earning member).

a Persons instead of households
b Basis includes non-eligible households
c Originally ≥ 6 years, however, better comparability of the 3 surveys requires neglecting the age group 6 through 9 years.

Note: For survey references, see table 1. Sources for national traffic volume: ICAO statistics for scheduled and charter air travel. All other modes from national statistics: Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics (various years); Austria: not applicable since survey excludes travel on weekends; France: INSEE (1986, 1995); Japan: not applicable since survey includes trip length only for automobiles; Netherlands: Statistics Netherlands (1998); Norway: Statistics Norway (various years); Singapore: independent statistics not available; Switzerland: Bundesamt für Statistik (1997); Great Britain: Department of Transport (various years), United States: U.S. Department of Transportation (several years), Davis (1998); West Germany: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (1987, 1996). HH: household, PKMT: passenger-kilometers traveled. The response rate is defined as the number of complete household interviews to the number of eligible households