Table 1 - Performance Measures

Table 1 - Performance Measures

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Study Measure(s) of Strategies
Effectiveness Cost Implementation Acceptability
Wagner and Gilbert (1978) 7 applications + 2 impacts 2 (capital + operating)     13 TSM strategies
Misch and Margolin (1981) 2 (effect + compatibility) 1 (cost per VMT or VHT reduced) 1 (feasibility or prospects) 1 (feasibility or prospects) 20 TSM actions
Schonfeld and Chadda (1985) 4 effects + 1 application 2 (user + general) 1 (problems and requirements) 1 (problems and requirements) 50 travel reduction options
Levinson et al. (1987) 17 (goals or impacts)       10 TSM strategies
Bhatt and Higgins (1989) 1 (results)       25 TSM programs
ITE (1989) 1 (impacts) 1 (costs) 1 (implementation)   55 congestion management tools
Ferguson (1991) 0 (implied)     1 (public) 4 TDM strategy groups
Downs (1992) 2 (extent + impact) 2 (commuter + social) 2 (institution + administration) 1 (political) 23 congestion-reducing policies
Zupan (1992) 1 application + 4 impacts 3 (employee + employer + public) 1 (index) 4 (employee + employer + municipal + public) 22 TDM solutions
Arnold (1993) 1 (scalar) 1 (scalar) 1 (scalar) 1 (number of agencies) 53 congestion-reducing measures
Comsis (1993) 1 (vehicle trip reduction)       22 TDM programs
OECD (1994) 8 applications + 8 impacts       35 congestion control strategies
McBryan et al. (1996) 2 applications + 2 impacts 2 (incremental cost + who pays) 4 (enabling + implementing authority + time + difficulties)   33 TDM strategies
ITE (1997) 1 (benefits/costs) 1 (benefits/costs) 1 (implementation)   82 mobility enhancement tools
Dueker et al. (1998) 3 applications + 2 impacts   1 (administration) 1 (political feasibility) 10 parking management strategies
Booz-Allen & Hamilton (2000) 9 direct + 12 indirect effects   1 (practical feasibility) 1 (political) 32 TDM strategies
Totals 91 15 14 11 489

* significant at 0.01 level
** significant at 0.05 level
*** 1.00 < t < 2.00
d.f. = degrees of freedom
HOV = high-occupancy vechicle
NA = not applicable
SOV = single-occupancy vehicle
SRSD = studentized residual
TDM = travel demand management
TMA = transportation management association
TSM = transportation system management
U = data are unavailable
VHT = vehicle hours of travel
VMT = vehicle-miles traveled
* Significant at 95% confidence interval.