Table 3 - Semantic Scales

Table 3 - Semantic Scales

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Author Variable Component Numeric values (initial assignment)
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Arnold Effectiveness         Minimal Average Maximum    
Arnold Cost         Inexpensive Average Expensive    
Arnold Implementation         Easy Average Difficult    
Arnold Acceptability       No Yes        
Downs Effectiveness Extent       Narrow Variable Broad    
Downs Effectiveness Impact       Little Moderate Great    
Downs Cost Direct to commuters     None Minor Moderate Great    
Downs Cost To all of society     None Minor Moderate Great    
Downs Implementation Required institution     None Cooperative Regional      
Downs Implementation Ease of administration       Easy Moderate Hard    
Downs Acceptability         Poor Moderate Good    
Zupan Effectiveness SOV reduction     None / varies / unknown Low Medium High    
Zupan Effectiveness Peak trip reduction                
Zupan Effectiveness VMT reduction Highly negative Negative   Positive        
Zupan Effectiveness Transit impact                
Zupan Cost Employee   Lower Same / none / varies / unknown / not applicable          
Zupan Cost Employer       Higher        
Zupan Cost Public capital                
Zupan Implementation       Unknown / not applicable Difficult to Easy Difficult to Easy Difficult to Easy Difficult to Easy Difficult to Easy
Zupan Acceptability Employee     Varies / unknown / not applicable Low Medium High    
Zupan Acceptability Employer                
Zupan Acceptability Municipal   Negative   Positive        
Zupan Acceptability Public                

* significant at 0.01 level
** significant at 0.05 level
*** 1.00 < t < 2.00
d.f. = degrees of freedom
HOV = high-occupancy vechicle
NA = not applicable
SOV = single-occupancy vehicle
SRSD = studentized residual
TDM = travel demand management
TMA = transportation management association
TSM = transportation system management
U = data are unavailable
VHT = vehicle hours of travel
VMT = vehicle-miles traveled
* Significant at 95% confidence interval.