Table A-1 Arnold Data

Table A-1 Arnold Data

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Congestion-reducing measures Effectiveness Cost Implementation Number of agencies reporting use of measure
Number of agencies Mean score Number of agencies Mean score Number of agencies Mean score
0 = Minimum 1 = Average 2 = Maximum Sum 0 = Inexpensive 1 = Average 2 = Expensive Sum 0 = Easy 1 = Average 2 = Difficult Sum
Increasing supply/adding capacity: Reconstructing highways with improved design 3 18 37 58 1.59 2 16 39 57 1.65 4 26 26 56 1.39 64
Increasing supply/adding capacity: Constructing new highways 2 11 39 52 1.71 1 5 45 51 1.86 4 23 23 50 1.38 56
Increasing supply/adding capacity: Widening by adding general purpose lanes 2 18 25 45 1.51 1 20 24 45 1.51 4 24 17 45 1.29 51
Increasing supply/adding capacity: Providing highway grade separations 0 6 20 26 1.77 0 3 23 26 1.88 2 8 16 26 1.54 27
Increasing supply/adding capacity: Providing railroad grade separations 1 10 14 25 1.52 0 3 21 24 1.88 3 11 10 24 1.29 26
Increasing supply/adding capacity: Toll-based financing to expedite new facility construction 0 5 11 16 1.69 2 6 8 16 1.38 1 5 10 16 1.56 13
Increasing supply/adding capacity: Constructing HOV lanes 1 1 7 9 1.67 1 3 6 10 1.50 0 3 7 10 1.70 9
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Intersection improvements (channelization, turn lanes, signing, bus stop relocation) 2 40 26 68 1.35 10 47 8 65 0.97 23 36 5 64 0.72 75
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Other signal improvements, including hardware, upgrades, retiming, removal 4 37 24 65 1.31 17 45 3 65 0.78 44 20 0 64 0.31 71
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Coordinated signal systems (arterial, grid, closed loop) 0 27 35 62 1.56 11 46 2 59 0.85 32 21 5 58 0.53 66
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Removing/restricting on-street parking 9 29 21 59 1.20 46 11 0 57 0.19 20 23 16 59 0.93 64
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Traffic management during reconstruction or other major improvements 10 34 12 56 1.04 14 33 7 54 0.87 27 20 5 52 0.58 60
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Turn prohibitions 9 33 11 53 1.04 46 7 0 53 0.13 31 17 4 52 0.48 59
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Improving other traffic control devices 8 31 11 50 1.06 20 26 3 49 0.65 30 19 1 50 0.42 54
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: One-way streets 4 26 15 45 1.24 22 21 0 43 0.49 13 21 9 43 0.91 52
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Prohibiting maintenance/repairs on major routesduring peak traffic hours 2 13 35 50 1.66 27 22 1 50 0.48 31 17 1 49 0.39 52
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Providing additional lanes w/o widening (shoulders, narrower lanes) 2 16 16 34 1.41 15 14 6 35 0.74 15 15 4 34 0.68 34
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Arterial access management 6 5 7 18 1.06 12 4 1 17 0.35 3 10 4 17 1.06 19
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Incident detection/management system/program 0 13 1 14 1.07 4 8 1 13 0.77 4 8 1 13 0.77 14
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Traffic surveillance/control system 0 4 5 9 1.56 1 6 2 9 1.11 2 4 2 8 1.00 12
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Traffic management team 2 7 3 12 1.08 8 3 2 13 0.54 8 4 1 13 0.46 11
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Converting existing facilities to HOV facilities 1 6 4 11 1.27 5 1 5 11 1.00 2 2 7 11 1.45 8
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Goods' movement management 3 6 0 9 0.67 4 4 0 8 0.50 1 5 3 9 1.22 8
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Motorist information system 1 5 2 8 1.13 2 5 2 9 1.00 5 3 1 9 0.56 7
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Ramp metering 1 6 0 7 0.86 1 5 2 8 1.13 1 5 1 7 1.00 6
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Reversible traffic lanes on arterials 1 6 3 10 1.20 3 6 1 10 0.80 3 4 3 10 1.00 5
Managing existing supply/using existing capacity more efficiently: Integrated freeway and arterial surveillance/control system 0 5 3 8 1.38 0 4 3 7 1.43 1 4 2 7 1.14 3
Managing/reducing existing demand: Providing public information on rideshare/transit 14 18 5 37 0.76 22 15 0 37 0.41 30 5 1 36 0.19 40
Managing/reducing existing demand: Park and ride lots 6 20 10 36 1.11 6 25 4 35 0.94 9 22 4 35 0.86 40
Managing/reducing existing demand: Implementing/improving transit fixed-route services 9 19 3 31 0.81 7 17 7 31 1.00 16 12 3 31 0.58 34
Managing/reducing existing demand: Daily flexible work hours (staggered/flextime) 4 18 9 31 1.16 25 6 0 31 0.19 18 10 3 31 0.52 33
Managing/reducing existing demand: Implementing/improving paratransit services 13 13 2 28 0.61 3 17 8 28 1.18 10 14 4 28 0.79 32
Managing/reducing existing demand: Commuter matching services 7 14 8 29 1.03 12 17 0 29 0.59 17 9 2 28 0.46 31
Managing/reducing existing demand: Subsidizing transit usage 8 16 4 28 0.86 3 16 10 29 1.24 14 12 3 29 0.62 28
Managing/reducing existing demand: Promoting nonvehicular alternatives to auto usage 11 13 3 27 0.70 8 15 3 26 0.81 10 13 4 27 0.78 26
Managing/reducing existing demand: Alternative work hours (compressed workweek) 4 17 1 22 0.86 19 3 0 22 0.14 13 5 3 21 0.52 23
Managing/reducing existing demand: Implementing express bus services 3 12 7 22 1.18 2 12 7 21 1.24 6 11 4 21 0.90 22
Managing/reducing existing demand: Implementing transportation management associations 5 11 1 17 0.76 6 12 0 18 0.67 5 13 0 18 0.72 19
Managing/reducing existing demand: Car/vanpool preferential parking 3 12 4 19 1.05 13 4 1 18 0.33 10 6 1 17 0.47 19
Managing/reducing existing demand: Communication in lieu of travel (teleconferencing) 6 10 2 18 0.78 10 8 0 18 0.44 10 6 2 18 0.56 17
Managing/reducing existing demand: Reducing or not increasing transit fares 3 9 1 13 0.85 3 6 5 14 1.14 6 6 2 14 0.71 13
Managing/reducing existing demand: Tax incentives for vanpools 3 7 1 11 0.82 3 8 0 11 0.73 4 5 2 11 0.82 12
Managing/reducing existing demand: Guaranteed ride home program 10 2 1 13 0.31 9 4 0 13 0.31 9 4 0 13 0.31 11
Managing/reducing existing demand: Communication in lieu of travel (telecommuting) 2 10 0 12 0.83 5 6 1 12 0.67 4 6 2 12 0.83 11
Managing/reducing existing demand: Government control of parking supply and location 4 5 0 9 0.56 5 2 2 9 0.67 3 5 1 9 0.78 11
Managing/reducing existing demand: Implementing/improving rail transit services 1 5 4 10 1.30 0 5 6 11 1.55 2 4 5 11 1.27 10
Managing/reducing existing demand: Reduced tolls for ridesharers 4 7 1 12 0.75 5 7 0 12 0.58 6 4 2 12 0.67 7
Managing/reducing existing demand: Differential parking rates 3 5 0 8 0.63 5 2 1 8 0.50 4 4 0 8 0.50 7
Avoiding/controlling demand growth: Growth management by public policy/ordinance/planning 5 29 8 42 1.07 17 21 4 42 0.69 3 18 20 41 1.41 41
Avoiding/controlling demand growth: Auto-restricted zones 1 1 2 4 1.25 0 4 0 4 1.00 0 3 1 4 1.25 25
Avoiding/controlling demand growth: Designing multiuse sites to minimize traffic 3 13 2 18 0.94 5 12 1 18 0.78 5 12 1 18 0.78 18
Avoiding/controlling demand growth: Mandatory trip reduction for new developments 2 6 4 12 1.17 6 4 1 11 0.55 1 5 6 12 1.42 11
Avoiding/controlling demand growth: Road/congestion pricing 0 2 0 2 1.00 0 1 1 2 1.50 0 2 0 2 1.00 1
Averages: Add supply 1.3 9.9 21.9 33 1.62 1 8 23.7 32.7 1.69 2.6 14.3 15.6 32.4 1.40 35.1
Averages: TSM 3.3 17.5 11.7 32.4 1.26 13.4 15.9 2.5 31.8 0.66 14.8 12.9 3.8 31.5 0.65 34
Averages: TDM 5.9 11.6 3.2 20.6 0.87 8.1 9.9 2.6 20.6 0.73 9.8 8.4 2.3 20.5 0.63 21.2
Averages: Growth control 2.2 10.2 3.2 15.6 1.06 5.6 8.4 1.4 15.4 0.73 1.8 8 5.6 15.4 1.25 19.2
All 4.3 13.8 6.7 24.9 1.10 10 12.2 2.4 24.6 0.69 10.9 10.2 3.3 24.4 0.69 26.3

* significant at 0.01 level
** significant at 0.05 level
*** 1.00 < t < 2.00
d.f. = degrees of freedom
HOV = high-occupancy vechicle
NA = not applicable
SOV = single-occupancy vehicle
SRSD = studentized residual
TDM = travel demand management
TMA = transportation management association
TSM = transportation system management
U = data are unavailable
VHT = vehicle hours of travel
VMT = vehicle-miles traveled
* Significant at 95% confidence interval.