Table A-2 Downs Data

Table A-2 Downs Data

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Congestion reducing policies Effectiveness Cost Implementation Political acceptability
Extent Impact Direct to commuters To all society Required institution Ease of administration
Supply-side: Coordinating signals, TV monitoring, ramp signals, electronic signs, converting streets to one-way Narrow Minor None Minor None Moderate Good
Supply-side: Rapidly removing accidents Variable Great None Minor None Easy Good
Supply-side: Improving highway maintenance Broad Moderate None Moderate None Moderate Moderate
Supply-side: Upgrading city streets Variable Moderate None Moderate None Easy Moderate
Supply-side: Increasing public transit usage by improving service, amenities Narrow Minor None Moderate None Hard Moderate
Supply-side: Building added HOV lanes Variable Moderate None Great Cooperative Hard Moderate
Supply-side: Building new and expanding existing off-road transit systems Narrow Moderate Minor Great Cooperative Hard Poor
Supply-side: Building new roads without HOV lanes Variable Moderate None Great Cooperative Moderate Poor
Demand-side: Adopting local growth limits Narrow Minor None Minor None Easy Good
Demand-side: Encouraging people to work at home Broad Minor None None None Moderate Good
Demand-side: Changing federal work laws that discourage working at home Broad Minor None Minor None Moderate Moderate
Demand-side: Clustering high-density housing near transit station stops Narrow Minor None Minor Cooperative Hard Moderate
Demand-side: Encouraging formation of TMAs, promoting ride sharing Narrow Moderate None Minor Cooperative Hard Moderate
Demand-side: Staggered work hours Variable Minor None None Cooperative Moderate Moderate
Demand-side: Providing income tax deductability for commuting allowances Variable Great None Minor None Easy Poor
Demand-side: Increasing gasoline taxes Broad Moderate Great Moderate None Easy Poor
Demand-side: Increasing automobile license fees Broad Minor Moderate Minor None Easy Poor
Demand-side: Eliminating income tax deductabilitiy of free employee parking Broad Great Great None Cooperative Moderate Poor
Demand-side: Instituting peak-hour tolls on main roads Broad Great Great None Regional Moderate Poor
Demand-side: Keeping densities in new growth areas above minimal levels Broad Moderate None Minor Regional Hard Poor
Demand-side: Improving the job-housing balance Broad Minor None Moderate Regional Hard Poor
Demand-side: Concentrating jobs in big clusters in areas of new growth Narrow Minor None Great Regional Hard Poor
Demand-side: Parking tax on peak-hour arrivals Broad Great Great None Regional Hard Poor

* significant at 0.01 level
** significant at 0.05 level
*** 1.00 < t < 2.00
d.f. = degrees of freedom
HOV = high-occupancy vechicle
NA = not applicable
SOV = single-occupancy vehicle
SRSD = studentized residual
TDM = travel demand management
TMA = transportation management association
TSM = transportation system management
U = data are unavailable
VHT = vehicle hours of travel
VMT = vehicle-miles traveled
* Significant at 95% confidence interval.