Table A-3 Zupan Data

Table A-3 Zupan Data

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TDM Solutions Effectiveness Cost Acceptance Ease of implementation index
SOV reduction Peak trip reduction VMT reduction Transit impact Employee Employer Public capital Employee Employer Municipal Political
Alternative work schedules: Staggered None High None None Same Higher Same High Low High High 3
Alternative work schedules: Flex-time Negative High Negative Negative Same Higher Same High Low High High 4
Alternative work schedules: Telecommuting Positive Positive Positive Highly neg. Lower Unknown Same Unknown Unknown High Medium Unknown
Alternative work schedules: Four-day week Medium Medium High Highly neg. Lower Unknown Same Medium Low High Medium 3
Alternative modes: Carpools High Medium Medium Negative Lower Varies Same Low Medium High High 3
Alternative modes: Vanpools Medium Low Low Negative Lower Higher Same Low Low High High 2
Alternative modes: Subscription buses Low Low Low Positive Lower Higher Same Low Low High Medium 2
Parking management: Preferential parking Low Low Low None Same Higher Same Low Low High High 2
Parking management: Parking pricing Medium Medium Medium Low Higher Same Same Negative Low Negative Negative 1
Parking management: Parking ratios Medium Medium Medium Positive Same Lower Same Negative Unknown Negative Negative 2
Parking management: Park and rides Medium Medium Medium Positive Varies NA Higher Medium Medium Varies High 4
Road pricing: Preferential HOV lanes Medium Medium Medium Positive Same NA Higher Varies Varies High Varies 4
Road pricing: Congestion pricing Medium High Medium Positive Varies NA Lower Low Low Unknown Negative Unknown
Transit: Transitchek Medium Medium Medium Medium Lower Same Same High Medium High High 5
Transit: Employer sponsored Low Low Low Low Varies Higher Same Medium Low High High 4
Transit: Employer subsidized Low Low Low Low Varies Higher Same Medium Low High High 5
Land use-zoning: Higher densities Medium Medium High High NA Varies Lower NA NA Negative Negative 2
Land use-zoning: Transit-friendly design Medium Medium Medium Medium Same Same Lower Medium Low Varies Positive 4
Land use-zoning: Mixed-use development Unknown Unknown Medium Unknown Lower Unknown Lower Unknown Unknown Varies Positive 4
Land use-zoning: Growth management Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Same Unknown Lower Unknown Unknown Varies Varies 3
Institutional: Trip reduction ordinances High High High Low/medium Varies Higher NA Low Negative Varies Varies 4
Institutional: Transportation management associations Varies Varies Varies Unknown Same Higher NA NA Varies NA Positive NA

* significant at 0.01 level
** significant at 0.05 level
*** 1.00 < t < 2.00
d.f. = degrees of freedom
HOV = high-occupancy vechicle
NA = not applicable
SOV = single-occupancy vehicle
SRSD = studentized residual
TDM = travel demand management
TMA = transportation management association
TSM = transportation system management
U = data are unavailable
VHT = vehicle hours of travel
VMT = vehicle-miles traveled
* Significant at 95% confidence interval.