Table B-2 Downs Model

Table B-2 Downs Model

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  Equation
1 2 3 4
Assumptions: Semantic differences: Cost: None-minor 1 2.6 1 1.8
Assumptions: Semantic differences: Cost: Minor-moderate 1 1.0 1 1.0
Assumptions: Semantic differences: Cost: Moderate-great 1 1.0 1 1.0
Assumptions: Component weights: Effectiveness: Extent 1 1 1.0 1.0
Assumptions: Component weights: Effectiveness: Impact 1 1 1.3 1.1
Assumptions: Component weights: Cost: Direct to commuters 1 1 1.0 1.0
Assumptions: Component weights: Cost: To all of society 1 1 2.2 1.9
Assumptions: Component weights: Implementation: Required institution 1 1 13.0 11.0
Assumptions: Component weights: Implementation: Ease of administration 1 1 1.0 1.0
Results: Estimated coefficients: Supply-side: Coefficient 0.29* 0.27* 0.43* 0.37*
Results: Estimated coefficients: Supply-side: Standard error 0.14 0.13 0.14 0.13
Results: Estimated coefficients: Supply-side: t-score 2.16 2.11 3.05 2.80
Results: Estimated coefficients: Effectiveness: Coefficient -0.22 -0.26* -0.33* -0.32*
Results: Estimated coefficients: Effectiveness: Standard error 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.12
Results: Estimated coefficients: Effectiveness: t-score -1.58 -2.01 -2.77 -2.79
Results: Estimated coefficients: Cost: Coefficient -0.59* -0.58* -0.64* -0.62*
Results: Estimated coefficients: Cost: Standard error 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13
Results: Estimated coefficients: Cost: t-score -4.23 -4.5 -4.79 -4.95
Results: Estimated coefficients: Implementation: Coefficient -0.3*  -0.36* -0.28* -0.35*
Results: Estimated coefficients: Implementation: Standard error 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.2
Results: Estimated coefficients: Implementation: t-score -2.3 -2.89 -2.2 -2.81
Results: Goodness-of-fit: Standard error of Y 0.61 0.59 0.56 0.55
Results: Goodness-of-fit: R-squared 69.30% 71.10% 74.50% 75.40%
Results: Goodness-of-fit: Number of observations 23 23 23 23
Results: Goodness-of-fit: Degrees of freedom 19 19 19 19

* significant at 0.01 level
** significant at 0.05 level
*** 1.00 < t < 2.00
d.f. = degrees of freedom
HOV = high-occupancy vechicle
NA = not applicable
SOV = single-occupancy vehicle
SRSD = studentized residual
TDM = travel demand management
TMA = transportation management association
TSM = transportation system management
U = data are unavailable
VHT = vehicle hours of travel
VMT = vehicle-miles traveled
* Significant at 95% confidence interval.