Table C-1 Arnold Output

Table C-1 Arnold Output

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Congestion-reducing measures Effectiveness Cost Implementation Acceptability SRSD
Add supply 1.70 2.03 1.65 0.36 0.00
Add supply: Reconstructing highways with improved design 1.53 1.93 1.45 1.78 -1.64
Add supply: Constructing new highways 1.98 2.74 1.42 1.39 -1.14
Add supply: Widening by adding general purpose lanes 1.23 1.32 1.12 1.14 -0.62
Add supply: Providing highway grade separations 2.11 2.75 1.96 -0.03 0.28
Add supply: Providing railroad grade separations 1.25 2.71 1.18 -0.08 0.37
Add supply: Constructing HOV lanes 1.98 1.59 2.41 -0.92 1.35
Add supply: Toll-based financing to expedite new facilities 1.80 1.18 2.02 -0.72 1.40
TSM 0.22 -0.33 -0.21 0.31 0.00
TSM: Major intersection improvements 0.58 -0.35 -0.46 2.32 -2.02
TSM: Removing/restricting on-street parking 0.31 -0.85 0.24 1.78 -1.86
TSM: Traffic management during reconstruction -0.27 -0.32 -0.73 1.58 -1.49
TSM: Turn prohibitions -0.29 -0.85 -0.95 1.53 -1.1
TSM: Minor intersection improvements 0.49 -0.66 -1.4 2.12 -1.09
TSM: One-way streets 0.31 -0.85 0.10 1.19 -1.05
TSM: Improving other traffic control devices -0.23 -0.6 -1.15 1.29 -0.71
TSM: Coordinated signal systems (arterial, grid, closed loop) 1.32 -0.71 -0.83 1.88 -0.66
TSM: Converting existing facilities to HOV facilities 0.42 1.00 1.82 -0.96 -0.18
TSM: Goods-movement management -1.32 -0.85 0.92 -0.96 0.00
TSM: Ramp metering -1.05 0.17 0.20 -1.06 0.44
TSM: Arterial access management 0.18 -0.61 0.45 -0.43 0.50
TSM: Providing additional lanes without widening 0.88 -0.15 -0.49 0.31 0.54
TSM: Prohibiting repairs on major routes during peak traffic 1.79 -0.77 -1.22 1.19 0.74
TSM: Incident detection/management system/program -0.57 -0.54 -0.36 -0.67 0.88
TSM: Integrated freeway/arterial surveillance/control system 0.60 0.89 0.69 -1.21 1.03
TSM: Reversible traffic lanes on arterials 0.17 -0.44 0.42 -1.11 1.29
TSM: Traffic surveillance/control system 1.29 0.05 0.35 -0.77 1.44
TSM: Traffic management team -0.12 -0.22 -0.99 -0.82 1.66
TSM: Motorist information system -0.06 0.05 -0.75 -1.01 1.67
TDM -0.74 -0.31 -0.52 -0.32 0.00
TDM: Implementing/improving paratransit services -1.23 0.31 -0.24 0.21 -1.34
TDM: Park and ride lots -0.01 -0.38 -0.13 0.60 -0.91
TDM: Implementing/improving transit fixed-route services -0.88 0.07 -0.72 0.31 -0.84
TDM: Promoting nonvehicular alternatives to auto usage  -1 -0.38 -0.25 -0.08 -0.61
TDM: Subsidizing transit usage -0.7 0.55 -0.63 0.01 -0.6
TDM: Implementing/improving rail services 0.55 1.37 1.19 -0.87 -0.3
TDM: Providing public information on rideshare/transit -0.86 -0.85 -1.6 0.60 -0.26
TDM: Implementing express bus services 0.18 0.51 0.07 -0.28 -0.17
TDM: Government control of parking supply and location -1.48 0.05 -0.3 -0.82 -0.12
TDM: Reducing or not increasing transit fares -0.88 0.60 -0.38 -0.72 0.00
TDM: Alternative work hours (compressed workweek) -0.93 -0.85 -0.77 -0.23 0.13
TDM: Implementing transportation management associations -1.04 -0.85 -0.57 -0.43 0.16
TDM: Communication in lieu of travel (telecommuting) -1.08 -0.51 -0.11 -0.82 0.18
TDM: Daily flexible work hours (staggered/flextime) 0.09 -0.85 -0.85 0.26 0.21
TDM: Commuter matching services -0.13 -0.85 -0.99 0.16 0.30
TDM: Tax incentives for vanpools -0.88 -0.85 -0.12 -0.77 0.36
TDM: Communication in lieu of travel (teleconferencing) -0.89 -0.85 -0.75 -0.52 0.49
TDM: Differential parking rates -1.38 -0.34 -1.02 -1.01 0.80
TDM: Reduced tolls for ridesharers  -1 -0.85 -0.44 -1.01 0.81
TDM: Car/vanpool preferential parking -0.26 -0.62 -0.99 -0.43 0.85
TDM: Guaranteed ride home program -1.64 -0.85 -1.41 -0.82 0.85
Growth control -0.17 -0.25 0.71 -0.42 0.00
Growth control: Growth management -0.28 -0.46 1.53 0.65 -1.85
Growth control: Trip reduction/transit requirements for new developments 0.20 -0.48 1.55 -0.82 0.21
Growth control: Auto-restricted zones 0.72 -0.85 0.86 -0.13 0.30
Growth control: Designing multiuse sites to minimize traffic -0.65 -0.62 -0.38 -0.47 0.65
Growth control: Road/congestion pricing -0.84 1.18 0.00 -1.31 0.68

* significant at 0.01 level
** significant at 0.05 level
*** 1.00 < t < 2.00
d.f. = degrees of freedom
HOV = high-occupancy vechicle
NA = not applicable
SOV = single-occupancy vehicle
SRSD = studentized residual
TDM = travel demand management
TMA = transportation management association
TSM = transportation system management
U = data are unavailable
VHT = vehicle hours of travel
VMT = vehicle-miles traveled
* Significant at 95% confidence interval.