Table C-2 Downs Output

Table C-2 Downs Output

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Congestion reducing policies Effectiveness Cost Implementation Acceptability SRSD
Supply-side -0.2 0.51 -0.43 0.41 0.00
Supply-side: Rapidly removing accidents 0.88 -0.52  -1 1.74 -1.55
Supply-side: Building added HOV lanes 0.08 1.14 0.40 0.41 -1.41
Supply-side: Coordinating signals and signs, one-way streets -1.45 -0.52 -0.89 1.74 -0.25
Supply-side: Improving highway maintenance 0.80 0.31 -0.89 0.41 -0.07
Supply-side: Upgrading city streets 0.08 0.31  -1 0.41 0.42
Supply-side: New or expanded off-road transit systems -0.65 1.93 0.40 -0.93 0.57
Supply-side: Building new roads without HOV lanes 0.08 1.14 0.30 -0.93 1.11
Supply-side: Improved transit service, amenities -1.45 0.31 -0.78 0.41 1.19
Demand-side 0.11 -0.27 0.23 -0.22 0.00
Demand-side: Adopting local growth limits -1.45 -0.52  -1 1.74 -1.61
Demand-side: Increasing gasoline taxes 0.80 1.97  -1 -0.93 -0.88
Demand-side: Encouraging people to work at home 0.01 -2.01 -0.89 1.74 -0.84
Demand-side: Encouraging formation of TMAs, ridesharing -0.65 -0.52 0.40 0.41 -0.52
Demand-side: Parking tax on peak-hour arrivals 1.60 -0.35 1.59 -0.93 -0.35
Demand-side: Instituting peak-hour tolls on main roads 1.60 -0.35 1.48 -0.93 -0.28
Demand-side: Concentrating jobs in areas of new growth -1.45 1.14 1.59 -0.93 -0.25
Demand-side: Improving the jobs-housing balance 0.01 0.31 1.59 -0.93 -0.16
Demand-side: Changing laws that discourage working at home 0.01 -0.52 -0.89 0.41 -0.09
Demand-side: Clustering high-density housing near transit -1.45 -0.52 0.40 0.41 -0.05
Demand-side: Keeping densities above minimal levels 0.80 -0.52 1.59 -0.93 0.31
Demand-side: Eliminating incentives for free employee parking 1.60 -0.35 0.30 -0.93 0.47
Demand-side: Increasing automobile license fees 0.01 0.70  -1 -0.93 1.04
Demand-side: Staggered working hours -0.72 -2.01 0.30 0.41 1.29
Demand-side: Tax deductable commuting allowances 0.88 -0.52  -1 -0.93 1.92

* significant at 0.01 level
** significant at 0.05 level
*** 1.00 < t < 2.00
d.f. = degrees of freedom
HOV = high-occupancy vechicle
NA = not applicable
SOV = single-occupancy vehicle
SRSD = studentized residual
TDM = travel demand management
TMA = transportation management association
TSM = transportation system management
U = data are unavailable
VHT = vehicle hours of travel
VMT = vehicle-miles traveled
* Significant at 95% confidence interval.