Table 1 Elasticity of Traffic Level with Respect to Tolls

Table 1
Elasticity of Traffic Level with Respect to Tolls

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Authors Results Context
Wuestefeld and Regan (1981) Roads between -0.03 and -0.31 Bridges between -0.15 and -0.31 Average value = -0.21 16 tolled infrastructures in the U.S. (roads, bridges, and tunnels)
White (1984), quoted in Oum et al. (1992) Peak-hours between -0.21 and -0.36 Off-peak hours between -0.14 and -0.29 Bridge in Southampton, UK
Goodwin (1988), quoted in May (1992) Average value = -0.45 Literature review of a number of previous studies
Ribas, Raymond, and Matas (1988) Between -0.15 and -0.48 Three intercity motorways in Spain
Jones and Hervik (1992) Oslo -0.22 Alesund -0.45 Toll ring schemes in Norway
Harvey (1994) Bridges between -0.05 and -0.15 Roads -0.10 Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay Bridge, and Everett Turnpike in New Hampshire (U.S.).
Hirschman, McNight, Paaswell, Pucher, and Berechman (1995) Between -0.09 and -0.50 Average value -0.25 (only significant values quoted) Six bridges and two tunnels in the New York City area, U.S.
Mauchan and Bonsall (1995) Whole motorway network -0.40 Intercity motorways -0.25 Simulation model of motorway charging in West Yorkshire, UK
Gifford and Talkington (1996) Own-elasticity of Friday-Saturday traffic -0.18 Cross-elasticity of Monday-Thursday traffic with respect to Friday toll -0.09 Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, U.S.
INRETS (1997), quoted in TRACE (1998) Between -0.22 and -0.35 French motorways for trips longer than 100 kilometers
Lawley Publications (2000) -0.20 New Jersey Turnpike, U.S.
Burris, Cain, and Pendyala (2001) Off-peak period elasticity with respect to off-peak toll discount between -0.03 and -0.36 Lee County, Florida, U.S.