TABLE 1 - Technical Operating and Descriptive Characteristics for GHG Forecasting Models

TABLE 1 - Technical Operating and Descriptive Characteristics for GHG Forecasting Models

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  NEMS Markal-Macro MiniCAM GREET TAFV
Model size (data inputs and sourcecode) Data inputs: 1015 MB Sourcecode: >120 MB Data inputs: 720 MB Sourcecode: 710 MB Data inputs: 1 MB Sourcecode: 903 KB Executable: 1 MB Excel spreadsheet~ 5 MB Data inputs: several MB Sourcecode: 208 KB
Hardware requirements 512 MB RAM; Pentium processor 256 MB RAM; Pentium 4; 2 GHz processor Pentium 4; 1.7 GHz processor 128 MB RAM; Pentium III; >400 MHz; need 100 MB of space on hard drive 128 MB RAM; Pentium III; 1,000 MHz; need 1 GB for model operational output
Software/platform PC platform; FORTRAN; Eviews software; OML linear programming software Linux; DYNAMO modeling language PC platform; FORTRAN; GUI Windows-based; MS Visual Studio; MS Access; MS Excel PC platform; GUI with Windows 95 or higher but 98 recommended Any platform; GAMS software
Run time Standalone1: <1 minute Total Integrated2: 24 hours 5 minutes <1 minute Almost instantaneous; but if in simulation mode using stochastic distributions, then 3 hrs. 3060 minutes
Resources for maintenance 40 employees; 4 contractors 2 National Lab employees 2 National Lab employees 4 National Lab employees 2 National Lab employees
Transportation sector coverage TRAN Module: LDV (car and light truck); Freight Truck (medium and heavy-duty); Aviation (wide and narrow-body, and general aviation; Rail (passenger and freight); Waterborne (passenger and freight); Miscellaneous (military, mass transit, recreational boats; criteria pollutant emissions and GHGs End-user technologies by sector; LDV (car and light truck); heavy trucks; buses; airplanes; shipping; passenger rail; freight rail Passenger mode: LDV (car and light truck), buses, rail, air, motorcycles. Light-duty vehicle emissions for 8 advanced engine technologies (including hybrids and fuel cells) in combination with 15 fuel types including hydrogen, dimethyl ether and Fischer-Tropsch diesel Light-duty vehicles; consumer choice model; auto manufacturers and fuel production and distribution sectors
Economic component Uses Global Insight Macro Model and integrates all sectors of economy including employment and Census division regional models Macro Growth Model fully integrated ERB Model: 3 sector economyresidential/commercial, transportation, industrial; long-term trends in economic output None/not applicable Uses macroeconomic inputs
Forecast period 20002025 Through 2050 Through 2100 Current year of operation using driving cycle Through 2030
Time period Annual 5 year intervals 15 yearly increments Current year of operation using federal driving cycle Annual
Optimizing solution Dynamic equilibrium convergence with iterations Constrained least cost dynamic equilibrium Constrained dynamic equilibrium None/not applicable but can be used with stochastic processes Nonlinear optimization solvers
Regionality U.S. by 9 Census divisions; however, some supply modules may be using industry regions also United States 14 global regions: U.S., Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Japan, former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Africa, Latin America, South Korea, and India None/not applicable because it measures emissions from a vehicle type and not in aggregate U.S. and some world energy supply areas
Emissions measured Carbon and criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulates Carbon dioxide (CO2), SOx, NOx CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), CO, NOx, VOC CO2, CH4, and N2O, and criteria pollutants: VOC, CO, NOx, particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM-10), and SOx CO2 greenhouse gas equivalent; however, the model outputs are usually run through GREET to calculate other emissions

1 Standalone transportation modeonly the transportation module is operating while the other module components are static.

2 Total Integrated mode refers to a model run, which has all of the modules active or operating and represents a dynamic equilibrium solution.

Sources: Personal c+ommunication with model authorsNEMS Model: John Maples; Markal-Macro Model: Phillip Tseng; Mini-Cam Model: Son H. Kim; GREET Model: Michael Wang; TAFV Model: Paul Leiby.