TABLE 2 Estimated Poisson Models for Number of Walking Trips and Estimated Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Model for Share of Walking Trips

TABLE 2 Estimated Poisson Models for Number of Walking Trips and Estimated Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Model for Share of Walking Trips

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Variable name Poisson models (number of trips)
Model 1
Poisson models (number of trips)
Model 2
Poisson models (number of trips)
Model 3
OLS (share of trips)
Model 4
Coeff. t-value Coeff. t-value Coeff. t-value Coeff. t-value
Household (HH) characteristics
Vehicles in HH −0.313*** −4.88 −0.240*** −3.77 −0.297*** −4.39 −0.078*** −4.45
Bikes in HH 0.362*** 8.19 0.320*** 7.11 0.285*** 6.16 0.061*** 3.85
Type housing unit                
Apart/condo 0.052 1.00 0.022 0.41 0.116** 2.01 0.034** 1.97
Dorm 1.200*** 3.66 0.897*** 2.61 1.641*** 4.62 0.563** 2.47
Income HH 0.086* 1.74 0.095* 1.90 0.143*** 2.80 0.032** 2.24
Individual characteristics                
Age −0.002* −1.87 −0.005*** −3.73 −0.004*** −3.56 −0.001*** −3.55
Female −0.052 −1.18 −0.072 −1.61 −0.072 −1.62 −0.017 −1.30
Driver −0.216*** −3.42 −0.188*** −2.97 −0.280*** −4.38 −0.060*** −3.34
Status                
Absent 0.287** 2.26 0.278** 2.18 0.324** 2.53 0.077* 1.92
Looking 0.351*** 2.82 0.274** 2.20 0.225* 1.80 0.070 1.61
Full-time −0.256*** −3.73 −0.308*** −4.44 −0.311*** −4.41 −0.037* −1.90
Occupation                
Sales/service −0.028 −0.32 −0.089 −1.03 −0.114 −1.30 −0.027 −1.20
Manuf/const/maint −0.069 −0.54 −0.144 −1.12 −0.261** −1.98 −0.046 −1.42
Prof/manag/tech 0.500*** 6.37 0.464*** 5.90 0.349*** 4.39 0.040* 1.72
Licensed −0.539*** −4.48 −0.507*** −4.20 −0.443*** −3.66 −0.053** −2.07
Distance-to-work −0.016*** −4.85 −0.016*** −5.04 −0.016*** −5.02 −0.003*** −4.28
Walk-exercising 0.406*** 20.63 0.398*** 19.77 0.359*** 17.44 0.083*** 8.49
Med condition −0.584*** −5.91 −0.617*** −6.19 −0.662*** −6.63 −0.098*** −4.38
Graduate 0.300*** 4.63 0.263*** 4.02 0.185*** 2.82 0.014 0.71
Attitudes/perceptions
Traffic accidents (TA)                
TA-No     −0.345*** −2.66 −0.341*** −2.62 −0.036 −1.21
Highway congestion (HC)                
HC-Very     0.186** 2.26 0.168** 2.03 −0.001 −0.05
HC-Severe     0.392*** 5.25 0.389*** 5.19 0.051** 2.29
Drunk drivers (DD)                
DD-Severe     0.275*** 2.99 0.268*** 2.91 0.008 0.26
Price of gasoline (PG)                
PG-No     0.348*** 6.03 0.389*** 6.73 0.053*** 2.90
PG-Severe     −0.295*** −3.36 −0.204** −2.31 −0.020 −0.97
Walkways/sidewalks (WS)                
WS-Little     0.255* 1.91 0.230* 1.70 0.041 0.98
WS-Somewhat     0.432*** 2.56 0.549*** 3.23 0.039 0.70
Urban form, neighborhood design, and land-use attributes
Ln(density)         0.041 1.32 0.011 1.25
Connectivity         −0.934*** −5.62 −0.089*** −2.78
Diversity         0.439*** 4.07 0.063** 1.97
Accessibility         −1.030*** −2.64 −0.117 −1.15
Neighborhood sociodemographics
Age in N         −0.005** −1.99 −0.001 −1.33
Race in N         0.731*** 11.01 0.092*** 5.17
                 
Constant −0.075 −1.26 −0.067 −1.12 −0.260 −0.79 0.224** 2.51
Valid N = 2,630   2,630   2,630   2,630  
Log-likelihood intercept only: −3,974.97   −3,974.97   −3,974.97      
Log-likelihood full model: −3,564.04   −3,510.16   −3,381.89      
McFadden's R2: (R2 for OLS) 0.103   0.117   0.149   0.146  
McFadden's adjusted R2: (Adjusted R2 for OLS) 0.098   0.110   0.141   0.135  
Likelihood-ratio (LR) test with respect to model 1 (p-value):     0.001   0.001      
Likelihood-ratio (LR) test with respect to model 2 (p-value):         0.001      

KEY: ***, **, and * denote coefficient significantly different from zero at the 1%, 5%, and 10% level of significance (two-tail test), respectively.