Table 1-31. U.S. Passenger-Miles (Millions)

Table 1-31. U.S. Passenger-Miles (Millions)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Air                             
Air carrier, certificated, domestic, all services R31,099 R53,226 R108,442 136,000 R204,368 R277,836 R345,873 R338,085 R354,764 R362,230 R388,399 R403,888 R434,652 R450,612 463,262
General aviationa 2,300 4,400 9,100 11,400 14,700 12,300 13,000 12,100 10,800 9,900 9,800 R10,800 R12,000 12,500 13,300
HighwayR                             
Passenger carb,c 1,144,673 1,394,803 1,750,897 1,954,166 2,011,989 2,094,621 2,281,391 2,200,260 2,208,226 2,213,281 2,249,742 2,271,310 2,337,068 2,389,064 2,463,827
Motorcycleb,c g g 3,277 6,192 12,257 11,812 12,424 11,656 11,946 12,184 12,390 11,560 11,706 11,896 12,134
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehiclec h h 225,613 363,267 520,774 688,091 999,754 1,116,958 1,201,667 1,252,860 1,269,292 1,295,648 1,339,126 1,395,212 1,423,971
Truck                             
Single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck 98,551 128,769 27,081 34,606 39,813 45,441 51,901 52,898 53,874 56,772 61,284 62,705 64,072 66,893 67,021
Combination truck 28,854 31,665 35,134 46,724 68,678 78,063 94,341 96,645 99,510 103,116 108,932 115,451 118,899 124,584 128,359
Busd N N N N N 94,925 121,398 121,906 122,496 129,852 135,871 136,104 138,613 145,060 148,325
Totalc 1,272,078 1,555,237 2,042,002 2,404,954 2,653,510 3,012,953 3,561,209 3,600,322 3,697,719 3,768,066 3,837,512 3,892,778 4,009,484 4,132,709 4,243,637
Transit                             
Motor busd N N N N R21,790 R21,161 R20,981 R21,090 R20,336 R20,247 R18,832 R18,818 R19,096 R19,604 P20,602
Light rail N N N N 381 350 571 662 701 705 833 860 957 R1,035 P1,118
Heavy rail N N N N R10,558 R10,427 R11,475 R10,528 R10,737 R10,231 R10,668 R10,559 R11,530 R12,056 P12,284
Trolley bus N N N N 219 306 193 195 199 188 187 187 184 189 P182
Commuter railR 4,197 4,128 4,592 4,513 6,516 6,534 7,082 7,344 7,320 6,940 7,996 8,244 8,351 8,038 P8,716
Demand responsived N N N N N 364 431 454 495 562 577 607 656 R754 P1,012
Ferry boat N N N N i i 286 282 271 260 260 260 256 349 P345
Other N N N N 390 439 124 148 R182 251 232 273 348 R314 P397
TotalR,e j4,197 j4,128 j4,592 j4,513 39,854 39,581 41,143 40,703 40,241 39,384 39,585 39,808 41,378 R42,339 P44,656
                               
Rail                             
Intercity/Amtrakf,R 17,064 13,260 6,179 3,931 4,503 4,825 6,057 6,273 6,091 6,199 5,921 5,545 5,050 5,166 5,304

a All operations other than those operating under 14 CFR 121 and 14 CFR 135.
b U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), provides data separately for passenger car and motorcycle in its annual Highway Statistics series. However, the 1995 summary report provides updated data for passenger car and motorcycle combined. Passenger car figures in this table were computed by U.S. Department ofTransportation, Bureau of Transporation Statistics by subtracting the most current motorcycle figures from the aggregate passenger car and motorcycle figures.
c In July 1997, FHWA published revised passenger-miles data for the highway modes for a number of years. The major change reflected the reassignment of some vehicles from the passenger car category to the other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle category. Passenger-miles for passenger car, motorcycle, and other 2-axle 4-tire vehicles were derived by multiplying vehicle-miles for these vehicles by average vehicle occupancy rates, provided by the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, 1977, 1983, and 1995.
d Motor bus and demand responsive figures are also included in the bus figure for highway.
e Prior to 1985, excludes demand responsive and most rural and smaller systems funded via Sections 18 and 16(b)2, Federal Transit Act. The series is not continuous between 1980 and 1985. Transit rail modes are measured in car-miles. Car-miles measure individual whicle-miles in a train. A 10-car train traveling 1 mile would equal 1 trainmile and 10 car-miles.               
f Amtrak began operations in 1971. Does not include contract commuter passengers.
g Included in passenger car.
h Included in other single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck.
i Ferry boat included in other.
j Includes commuter rail figures only.

KEY: N = data do not exist; P = preliminary; R = revised.

NOTES: Air carrier passenger-miles are computed by summing of the products of the aircraft-miles flown on each interairport segment multiplied by the number of passengers carried on that segment. Highway passenger-miles are calculated by multiplying vehicle-miles of travel as cited by FHWA by the average number of occupants for each vehicle type. Average vehicle occupancy rates are based on various sources, such as the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, conducted by the Federal HighwayAdministration, and the Truck Inventory and Use Survey, conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Transit passenger-miles are the cumulative sum of the distances ridden by each passenger. Rail passenger-miles represent the movement of 1 passenger for 1 mile.

SOURCES:
Air:
Air carrier, domestic, all services:
1960: Civil Aeronautics Board, Handbook of Airline Statistics 1969 (Washington, DC: 1970), part III, table 2.
1965-70: Ibid., Handbook of Airline Statistics 1973 (Washington, DC: 1974), part III, table 2.
1975-80: Ibid., Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington, DC: 1976, 1981), p. 4 (December 1976) and p. 2 (December 1981).
1985-98: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics
(Washington, DC: Annual December issues), page 2, line 1.
General aviation:
1960-97: Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation in America, 1998 (Washington, DC: 1998), p. 47.
Highway:v
Passenger car and motorcycle:
1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, Internet site
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/summary95/index.html, as of July 28, 2000, table VM-201A.
1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1, and Internet site www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/ohimstat.htm.
Motorcycle:
1970-80: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Summary to 1985 (Washington, DC: 1986), table VM-201A.
1985-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1, and Internet site www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/ohimstat.htm.
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle:
1970-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, Internet site
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/summary95/index.html, as of July 28, 2000, table VM-201A.
1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1, and Internet site www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/ohimstat.htm.
Single-unit 2-axle 6-tires or more truck, combination truck, and bus:
1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, Internet site
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/summary95/index.html, as of July 28, 2000, table VM-201A.
1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1, and Internet site www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/ohimstat.htm.
Transit:
Ferry boat and other:
1992: American Public Transit Association, personal communication, July 19, 2000.
All other data:
1960-98: American Public Transit Association, Transit Fact Book (Washington, DC: 2000), table 30 and similar tables in earlier editions.
Rail, Intercity/Amtrak:
1960-80: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: Annual issues).
1985: Amtrak, Amtrak FY95 Annual Report Statistical Appendix (Washington, DC: 1996), p. 4.
1990-98: Ibid., Amtrak FY99 Annual Report Statistical Appendix (Washington, DC: 2000), p. 43.