Table 3-19. Employment in For-Hire Transportation and Selected Transportation-Related Industriesa (Thousands)

Table 3-19. Employment in For-Hire Transportation and Selected Transportation-Related Industriesa (Thousands)

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SIC   1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
  Total U.S. labor forceb54,189 60,763 70,880 76,945 90,406 97,387 109,403 108,249 108,601 110,713 114,163 117,191 119,608 122,690 R125,826 128,615
  For-hire transportation industry                               
45 Air 191 229 352 363 453 522 968 R962 R964 R988 R1,023 1,068 1,107 R1,134 R1,183 1,237
42 Trucking and warehousing 856 964 1,083 1,108 1,280 1,361 1,395 R1,378 R1,385 R1,444 R1,526 1,587 1,637 R1,677 R1,745 1,813
41 Local and interurban passenger transit                                
413 Intercity and rural bus 41 42 43 40 38 35 26 24 23 22 24 24 24 R22 R26 28
411 Local and suburban U U U 69 79 92 141 155 162 176 194 203 218 R229 R235 242
415 School busc N N N 65 80 91 111 115 118 122 126 131 132 R137 R141 146
412 Taxi 121 110 106 85 53 38 32 32 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31
  Other local and interurband R123 R118 R131 11 R16 R22 28 28 28 29 R30 R31 R33 R34 R35 34
40 Railroad 885 735 634 548 532 359 279 262 254 248 241 238 231 227 R231 230
44 Water N 228 212 194 211 185 177 184 173 168 172 175 174 R179 R180 181
46 Liquid pipeline 23 20 18 18 21 19 19 19 19 18 17 15 15 14 14 13
492 Natural gas pipelinee                                
  Distribution N N N 51 52 62 65 63 66 62 62 62 80 75 R70 U
  Transmission 31 30 32 37 45 46 37 38 46 34 31 28 32 28 R28 U
  Integrated N N N 55 53 43 40 40 35 39 39 36 13 12 R14 U
  Combination N N N 52 52 53 50 50 50 48 43 42 39 31 R30 U
  Noninvestor-owned N N N 11 13 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 R16 9 R9 U
47 Transportation servicesf N 85 115 134 198 275 R336 R336 R338 R352 R378 401 418 R441 R455 469
  Total for-hire transportation R2,271 R2,559 R2,726 2,841 3,175 3,214 R3,715 R3,697 R3,704 R3,792 3,948 R4,083 R4,198 R4,278 R4427 4,425
37 Equipment manufacturing                               
372 Aircraft and parts 605 601 644 499 633 616 712 669 612 542 482 451 458 R501 R524 490
371 Motor vehicles and equipment 724 843 799 792 789 883 812 789 813 837 909 971 967 R986 R990 1,000
374 Railroad equipment 43 56 51 57 71 33 33 30 29 31 35 38 36 R34 R37 35
373 Ship and boat building and repairing 141 160 172 194 221 187 188 177 170 159 158 160 159 R158 R166 164
301 Tires and inner tubes 105 102 116 124 115 94 84 81 81 82 79 80 80 78 79 77
  Otherg 155 193 167 157 R167 241 244 225 207 R188 177 R172 165 167 R168 166
  Total SIC 37 and SIC 301 1,773 1,955 1,949 1,824 R1,995 2,054 2,073 1,971 1,911 R1,838 1,840 R1,872 R1864 R1,923 R1,963 1,932
 Related industries                               
553 Automotive and home supply stores U U U 212 261 304 337 332 332 340 357 369 380 R392 R398 405
75 Automotive repair, services, and parking U U U 439 571 730 914 882 881 925 968 1,020 1,080 R1,120 R1,144 1,185
554 Gasoline service stations 461 522 613 622 561 588 647 626 616 617 634 649 669 R676 R689 702
161 Highway and street construction U U U U U 264 239 218 215 222 226 228 236 R243 R253 264
501 Motor vehicles, parts, and supplies U U U 382 434 454 456 448 446 451 471 492 503 R513 R518 532
551 New and used car dealers U U U 731 745 856 924 879 875 908 963 996 1,031 R1,046 R1,048 1,081
  Other automotive retailh N N N 112 122 R140 R155 146 R143 148 R163 176 187 197 206 218
  Total related industries 461 522 613 2,498 2,694 R3,336 R3,672 3,532 R3,508 3,612 R3,782 3,930 4,086 R4,186 R4,257 4,386
  Government employmenti                               
  U.S. DOTj N N 104 112 112 100 104 108 110 109 103 101 99 98 99 100
  State and local highwayk 532 577 607 604 559 549 569 564 R525 R541 544 R543 lN R531 R530 U
  Total government employment 532 577 711 716 671 649 673 672 R635 R650 647 R644 99 R629 R629 100
  TOTAL transportation-related labor forceR5,037 R5,613 6,000 7,879 8,536 R9,252 10,133 R9,872 R9,758 R9,892 R10,217 R10,527 R10,247 R11,016 R11,276 10,843

a Annual averages.
b Excludes farm employment.
c Does not include drivers employed by school districts.
d Difference between the total of SIC 41 and the sum of 411, 412, 413, and 415.
e In 1997, the American Gas Association revised the database that identifies companies by type (e.g., distribution, integrated, or  transmission). This reclassification has resulted in additions to the distribution and reductions to the integrated company categories  beginning with the revised data in 1996. Additionally, data by company type are not directly comparable from year to year due to acquisitions and mergers.
f Transportation services are defined as services incidental to transportation, such as forwarding and packing; motor vehicle inspections; and freight broker, tour operator, and travel agency services, etc.
g The difference between the total of SIC 37 and the sum of 371, 372, 373, and 374.
h The difference between the total of SIC 55 and the sum of 551, 553, and 554.
I Not all government agencies are included (e.g., the National Transportation Safety Board).                
j U.S. Department of Transportation was created in 1966. Data are for fiscal year and include permanent civilians as well as  temporary employees and military.
k Full-time equivalent employment. Data prior to 1986 are not directly comparable to data from later years due to a change in the way full-time equivalent  was calculated. Full-time equivalent was not calculated for 1985.
l Due to a change in the reference period, from October to March, the October 1996 Annual Survey of Government Employment and Payroll was not conducted.

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available.

NOTES: The employment totals in tables 3-19 and 3-20 differ. Table 3-19 shows employment in transportation and selected transportation-related  industries. Table 3-20 shows employment by transportation occupation. Some employees of transportation industries have  nontransportation jobs (e.g., a bookkeeper in a trucking firm), and some people with transportation occupations do not work in the  transportation industry (e.g., a truck driver for a construction firm). Beginning in January 1999, data are not strictly comparable with data for 1998 and earlier years because of revisions in the population controls used in the household survey.

SOURCES:
All data, except as noted:
1960-85: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment, Hours and Earnings, United States, 1909-1994  (Washington, DC: September 1994).
1990-99: Ibid. Internet site www.bls.gov/datahome.htm, database query for individual series, as of Apr. 20, 2000.
Natural gas pipeline:
1975-99: American Gas Association, Gas Facts (Arlington, VA: Annual issues), table 14-2 and similar tables in earlier editions.
Government employment:
USDOT:
1970-75: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United  States, 1976 (Washington, DC: 1976), table 409, and U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast  Guard, G-WPM, Office of Military Personnel, personal communication.
1980-85: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary of Transportation, DOT Employment Facts, A Report to  Management (Washington, DC: Annual issues).
1990-99: Ibid. DOT Workforce Demographics (Washington, DC : Annual issues).
State and local highway:
1960-91: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1993 (Washington, DC: 1993),  table 500 and similar tables in earlier editions.
1992-98: Ibid. Internet site http://www.census.gov/pub/govs/www/apesstl.html, as of Apr. 24, 2000.