Table 4-20. Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Btu per passenger-mile)

Table 4-20. Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Btu per passenger-mile)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
AirR                             
Certificated air carrier                              
Domestic operations 8,633 10,118 10,185 7,746 5,727 5,047 4,932 4,671 4,564 4,558 4,444 4,382 4,183 4,146 4,123
International operations 9,199 10,292 10,986 8,465 8,866 5,103 4,546 4,609 4,258 4,099 4,145 4,173 4,108 4,168 4,278
Highwayb                             
Passenger car 4,495 4,455 4,841 4,743 4,348 4,267 3,812 3,654 3,703 3,785 3,771 3,721 3,702 3,657 3,672
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle N N 6,810 6,571 5,709 4,971 4,451 4,277 4,256 4,275 4,345 R4,539 R4,560 R4,563 4,591
Motorcycle a a 2,500 2,354 2,125 1,896 1,990 1,917 1,990 2,063 2,135 R2,227 R2,250 R2,295 2,330
Transit motor busN N N N 2,742 R3,396 R3,723 3,767 R4,038 R3,944 R4,162 R4,155 R4,196 R4,228 P3,729
AmtrakN N N 2,383 R2,164 R2,094 R2,064 1,978 R2,035 R2,023 1,935 1,838 R2,148 2,200 2,138

a Included in passenger car.
b For 1995 and subsequent years, highway passenger-miles were taken directly from Highway Statistics rather than derived from vehicle-miles and average occupancy, as is the case for 1960-1994.

KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; N = data do not exist; P = preliminary; R = revised.

NOTES: To calculate total Btu, multiply fuel consumed (see tables 4-21, 4-22, 4-24, 4-25) by 135,000 Btu/gallon for air carrier, 125,000 Btu/gallonfor passenger car, other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle, and motorcycle, and 138,700 Btu/gallon for transit motor bus and Amtrak.

SOURCES:
Air:
Certificated air carriers:
Passenger-miles:
1960-99: Air Transport Association, Internet site http://www.air-transport.org/public/industry, as of July 5, 2000.
Fuel consumed:
1960-99: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html, as of July 5, 2000.
Highway 
Passenger car:
1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.
1995-98: Ibid. Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1. 
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle: 
1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A. 
1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1. 
Motorcycle: 
1970-85: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A. 
1990-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1. 
Transit motor bus: 
1980-98: American Public Transportation Association, Public Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: March 2000), tables 30, 42; and 65. 
Amtrak:
1975-98: Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communications.