Table 4-30b. Federal Exhaust Emission Certification Standards for Newly Manufactured Gasoline- and Diesel-Powered Light Duty Trucks (Category LDT2) (Grams per mile)

Table 4-30b. Federal Exhaust Emission Certification Standards for Newly Manufactured Gasoline- and Diesel-Powered Light Duty Trucks (Category LDT2) (Grams per mile)

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Engine type and pollutant Prior to controlg 1968-1969 1970-1971 1972 1973-1974 1975 1976-1978 1979-1981 1982-1983 1984 1985-1986 1987 1988-1990 1991-1993 Tier 1k
1994
Tier 1k
1995-2003
Interim Tier 2k
2004-2006
Tier 2k
2007+
Gasoline                                   
HC (total) 11 e 2.2 3.4 3.4 2.0 2.0 1.7 1.7 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 j (0.80) j (0.80) j j
NMHC h j j j j j j j j j j j j j j (0.40) j (0.40) j j
NMOG h j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j 0.125(0.156) 0.100(0.125)
CO 80 I 23 39 39 20 20 18 18 10 10 10 10 10 4.4(5.5) 4.4(5.5) 3.4(4.2) 3.4(4.2)
Cold-temp. COd h j j j j j j j j j j j j j 12.5 (j) 12.5 (j) 12.5 (j) 12.5 (j)
NOx 4 j j j 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 1.7 1.7 0.7(0.97) 0.7(0.97) 0.4(0.6) 0.14(0.20)
Particulates h j j j j j j j j j j j j j j 0.08(0.10) 0.08(0.08) 0.02(0.02)
Formaldehyde h j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j 0.015(0.018) 0.015(0.018)
Diesel                                   
HC (total) 11 j j j j j 2.0 1.7 1.7 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 j (0.80) j (0.80) j j
NMHC h j j j j j j j j j j j j j 0.32(0.40) 0.32(0.40) j j
NMOG h j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j (0.156) 0.100(0.125)
CO 80 j j j j j 20 18 18 10 10 10 10 10 4.4 (5.5) j(4.2) 3.4(4.2)
NOx 4 j j j j j 3.1 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 1.7 1.7 j (0.97) j (0.97) j (0.6) 0.14(0.20)
Particulates h j j j j j j j 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.45 0.13 0.13 0.08(0.10) j (0.10) 0.02(0.02)
Formaldehyde h j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j (0.018) 0.015(0.018)
LDT2 weight criteriaeGVWR up through 6,000 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds GVWR up through 8,500 pounds GVWR up through 8,500 pounds GVWR up through 8,500 pounds GVWR up through 8,500 pounds GVWR up through 8,500 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds; LVW over 3,750 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds; LVW over 3,750 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds; LVW over 3,750 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds; LVW over 3,750 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds; LVW over 3,750 pounds GVWR up through 6,000 pounds; LVW over 3,750 pounds
Test procedureb7-mode 7-mode CVS-72 CVS-72 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75 CVS-75
Useful life (intermediate)c, fj j j j j j j j j j j j j 5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
(full)5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
5 years/
50,000 miles
11 years/
120,000 miles
11 years/
120,000 miles
11 years/
120,000 miles
11 years/
120,000 miles
10 years/
100,000 miles
10 years/
100,000 miles
10 years/
100,000 miles
10 years/
120,000 miles

KEY: CO=carbon monoxide; GVWR=gross vehicle weight rating; HC=hydrocarbons; LVW=loaded vehicle weight; NMHC=non-methane hydrocarbons; NMHC=nonmethane hydrocarbons; NMOG=nonmethane organic gases; NOx=nitrogen oxides.
aLight-duty truck categories LDT1-LDT4 were not created until 1994. From 1968 to 1978 all trucks with a GVWR up to 6,000 pounds were classified as light-duty trucks and were required to meet the same standards. As of 1979, the maximum weight was raised to 8,500 pounds GVWR. During 1988-93, light-duty trucks were divided into two subcategories that coincide with the current LDT1-LDT4 categories. The standards for LDT1, LDT3, and LDT4 are shown in tables 4-30a, 4-40c, and 4-30d.
bThe test procedure for measuring exhaust emissions has changed several times over the course of vehicle emissions regulation. The 7-mode procedure was used through model year 1971 and was replaced by the CVS-72 procedure beginning in model year 1972. The CVS-75 procedure became the test procedure as of model year 1975. While it may appear that the total HC and CO standards were relaxed in 1972-74, these standards were actually more stringent due to the more stringent nature of the CVS-72 test procedure. Additional standards for CO and composite standards for NMHC and NOx tested over the new Supplemental Federal Test Procedure will be phased-in beginning with model year 2000. These standards are not shown in this table.
cEmissions standards had to be met for a useful life of 5 years/50,000 miles through model year 1983, and a full useful life of 11 years/120,000 miles was defined for 1985-93 (several useful life options were available for 1984). Beginning in model year 1994, emissions standards were established for an intermediate useful life of 5 years/50,000 miles as well as a full useful life (full useful life standards are shown in parentheses). HC standards, however, were established only for full useful life. Tier 1 exhaust standards, except particulates standards, were phased-in during 1994-96 at a rate of 40%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Particulates standards were phased-in at a rate of 40%, 80%, and 100% during 1995-97.
dThe cold CO emissions standard is measured at 20 degrees F (rather than 75 degrees F) and is applicable for a 5-year/50,000-mile useful life.
eGVWR is the maximum design loaded weight. LVW is the curb weight (nominal vehicle weight) plus 300 pounds. fManufacturers can opt to certify vehicles for a full useful life of 15 years/150,000 miles and either have (1) intermediate usefull life standards waived or (2) receive additional NOx credits.
gThe "Prior to controls" reports emissions estimates of a typical newly manufactured car in the years before exhaust emissions certification standards were implemented.
h No estimate available.
iIn 1968-69, exhaust emissions standards were issued in parts per million rather than grams per mile and are, therefore, incompatible with this table.
j No standard has been set.
kThe term "tier" refers to a level of standards for specific years. Interim 2 refers to an intermediate level of standards that move manufacturers toward compliance with Tier 2 standards. Interim Tier 2 and Tier 2 standards are established as "bins." Each bin is a set of standards for NOx, CO, NMOG, formaldehyde, and particulates (HC and NMHC standards are dropped for Tier 2 and Interim Tier 2). Manufacturers may certify any given vehicle family to any of the bins available for that vehicle class as long as the resulting sales-weighted corporate average NOx standard is met for the full useful life. The Tier 2 corporate average NOx standard is 0.07 grams/mile. Interim corporate-based average NOx standards are based on vehicle type. The interim corporate sales-weighted average for LDT2 vehicles is 0.3 grams/mile. Tier 2 standards will be phased in at a rate of 25% in 2004, 50% in 2005, 75% in 2006, and 100% in 2007. During this period all LDT2 vehicles not meeting the Tier 2 standards must meet Interim Tier 2 standards.

SOURCES:
40 CFR 86, Subpart A (July 1, 1998). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, personal communication, April 1999, and the Federal Register, Vol. 65, No. 28, pp. 6851-6870.