Table 4-35. Federal Exhaust Emissions Standards for Locomotives a (g/bhph except where noted)

Table 4-35. Federal Exhaust Emissions Standards for Locomotives a (g/bhph except where noted)

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Pollutant Duty-cycle f Tier 0
1973-2001 h
Tier 1
2002-2004
Tier 2
2005+
Total HC b Line-haul 1.00 0.55 0.30
Switch 2.10 1.20 0.60
Nonmethane HC c Line-haul 1.00 0.55 0.30
Switch 2.10 1.20 0.60
Total HC equivalent d Line-haul 1.00 0.55 0.30
Switch 2.10 1.20 0.60
CO Line-haul 5.0 2.2 1.5
Switch 8.0 2.5 2.4
Line-haul (optional standard) g 10.0 10.0 10.0
Switch (optional standard) g 12.0 12.0 12.0
NOx Line-haul 9.5 7.4 5.5
Switch 14.0 11.0 8.1
Particulates Line-haul 0.60 0.45 0.20
Switch 0.72 0.54 0.24
Line-haul (optional standard) g 0.30 0.22 0.10
Switch (optional standard) g 0.36 0.27 0.12
Smoke opacity Steady-state 30% 25% 20%
(% opacity-normalized) h 30-second peak 40% 40% 40%
3-second peak 50% 50% 50%
Useful life    7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j 7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j 7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j

a Locomotive standards apply to both new and remanufactured locomotives, except as noted.
b The line-haul duty-cycle is weighted toward operation in the higher power notches and is typical of line-haulapplications. The switch duty-cycle is typical of switch operations, with more emphasis on idle and low powernotch emissions. Locomotives generally are required to meet the standards for both duty-cycles. However, Tier 0dedicated switch locomotives rated at 2,300 hp or less are only required to meet the switch duty-cycle standard.
c Tier 0 standards apply to all new production locomotives in the 2001 model year, as well as for any 1994 through2001 model year freight locomotives remanufactured on or after Jan. 1, 2001. They also apply to all other1973 through 2001 model year locomotives remanufactured on or after Jan. 1, 2002. Other phase-in optionsare also available for manufacturers (see 40 CFR 92 for more detail on phase-in options).
d Total HC standards apply to locomotives powered by any fuel except alcohol or natural gas orfuels primarily composed of alcohol or natural gas.
e Nonmethane HC standards apply to locomotives powered by natural gas or fuels that are primarilycomposed of natural gas.
f Total HC equivalent standards apply to locomotives powered by alcohol or fuels that are primarily composed of alcohol.
g Manufacturers and remanufacturers can elect to comply with the alternate CO and PM standards. However,a manufacturer or remanufacturer using the alternate standards must meet both the CO and the PM standards.This allows locomotives to have higher CO emissions in exchange for meeting more stringent PM standards.
h Smoke opacity values are normalized to be equivalent to a 1 meter path length.
i For Tier 0 locomotives not equipped with MW/h meters, the minimum useful life is 750,000 milesor 10 years, whichever comes first.
j This is a minimum standard. The certifying manufacturer or remanufacturer must specify a longer usefullife if the locomotive or locomotive engine is designed to last longer than the applicable minimum useful life.

KEY: bhp = boiler horsepower; bhph = boiler horsepower hour; CO = carbon monoxide; g = gram; h = hour; MW = megawatt; MWh = megawatt hour; Nox = nigrogen oxides; PM = particulate matter.

SOURCE: 40 CFR 92, July 1, 1998.