Table 4-43. Estimated National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-10)a (Million short tons)

Table 4-43. Estimated National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-10)a (Million short tons)

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  1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Transportation                                 
On-road vehicles 0.44 0.47 0.40 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.34 0.35 0.34 0.32 0.32 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.26
Off-road                                 
Aircraft 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
Railroads 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
Marine vessels 0.01 0.01 0.02 R0.03 R0.03 R0.03 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 R0.05 R0.05 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 0.04
Other off-roadb R<0.01 0.03 R0.03 R0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 R0.04 0.04
Total transportation-fuel-related R0.49 0.57 0.52 0.50 R0.51 0.51 R0.54 R0.54 0.51 R0.53 R0.53 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.41
Transportation-related fugitive dust                                 
Unpaved highways N N N 11.64 11.67 11.11 12.38 11.80 11.23 11.21 10.92 11.43 11.37 10.36 12.06 R12.53 12.67
Paved highways N N N 5.08 5.26 5.53 5.90 5.77 2.25 2.40 2.42 2.46 2.54 2.41 2.39 R2.54 2.62
Total transportation R0.49 R0.57 R0.52 17.22 R17.44 17.15 R18.82 R18.11 R13.99 R14.14 R13.87 14.38 14.40 13.21 14.88 R15.49 15.70
Nontransportation                                 
Fuel combustion 2.87 2.25 2.45 1.54 1.42 1.33 1.38 1.38 1.20 1.15 1.18 1.12 1.11 1.18 R1.17 R1.09 1.09
Industrial processesc 7.67 3.70 2.75 1.06 1.05 1.02 1.03 1.03 1.04 0.99 0.99 0.91 0.91 0.95 R0.68 R0.70 0.71
Waste disposal and recycling 1.00 0.37 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.33 0.31 0.29 R0.30 R0.31 0.31
Miscellaneousd,R 1.00 0.78 1.13 25.34 30.76 22.69 39.59 32.31 13.47 13.02 13.15 11.26 14.18 11.45 16.00 16.64 16.94
Total nontransportationR 12.54 7.10 6.60 28.22 33.50 25.31 42.26 34.97 15.98 15.44 15.60 13.62 16.51 13.87 18.15 18.74 19.05
TOTAL all sourcesR13.04 7.67 7.12 45.45 50.94 42.46 61.07 53.06 29.96 29.56 29.47 28.01 30.91 27.07 33.04 34.23 34.74

a Fine particulate matter less than 10 microns.
b Other off-road comprises nonroad gasoline- and diesel-powered recreational, airport service and railway maintenance vehicles, and recreational marine vessels.
c Industrial processes comprise chemical and allied product manufacturing, metals processing, petroleum and related industries, and other industrial processes; solvent utilization; and storage and transport.
d Miscellaneous comprises nonroad gasoline- and diesel-powered construction, industrial, lawn and garden, farm, light-commercial, logging vehicles and other non-road sources;  geogenic sources; agriculture and forestry, cooling towers, nontransportation-related fugitive dust, wildfires, managed burning, and other combustion sources that could not be accurately allocated to specific source categories.

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised.

NOTES: The methodologies used to estimate emissions constantly evolve and undergo major changes. These improved methods are often used to revise estimates for previous years. Therefore, some estimates in this table may not match estimates produced in previous reports, and some trends may not be consistent across years in which major methodology changes have occurred.Numbers may not add to totals due to rounding.

SOURCES: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Air Pollutant Emission Trends: 1900-1998 (EPA-454/R-00-002) (Research Triangle Park, NC: March 2000), table A-5; also available atInternet site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends98/emtrnd.html, as of Aug. 8, 2000.