Table 4-46. Estimated National Emissions of Lead (Thousand short tons)

Table 4-46. Estimated National Emissions of Lead (Thousand short tons)

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  1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Transportation                                  
Highway vehicles 171.96 130.21 60.50 18.05 10.25 3.32 2.57 0.98 0.42 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Aircraft 1.40 1.12 0.89 0.69 0.81 0.63 0.67 0.66 0.62 0.57 0.57 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.51 0.50 0.50
Total transportationR173.36 131.33 61.39 18.74 11.06 3.95 3.24 1.64 1.04 0.59 0.59 0.55 0.55 0.56 0.53 0.52 0.52
Fuel combustion 10.62 10.35 4.30 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.49 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.50
Industrial processesa 26.36 11.38 3.94 2.53 2.13 2.16 2.27 2.40 R2.48 2.27 1.92 2.05 2.18 2.27 2.27 R2.32 2.33
Waste disposal and recycling 2.20 1.60 1.21 0.87 0.84 0.84 0.82 0.77 0.80 0.81 0.81 R0.83 0.83 0.60 R0.61 R0.62 0.62
Miscellaneousb 8.34 5.01 3.32 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.17 0.16 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Total nontransportation47.52 R28.34 12.77 4.15 R3.71 R3.73 3.81 3.85 3.94 R3.58 R3.22 R3.38 R3.50 R3.36 R3.37 R3.44 3.45
TOTAL220.87 159.66 74.15 22.89 14.76 7.68 7.05 5.47 4.98 4.17 3.81 3.92 R4.05 R3.93 R3.90 R3.95 3.97

a Industrial processes comprise chemical and allied product manufacturing, metals processing, and other industrial processes.
b Miscellaneous comprises other nonroad gasoline, engines and vehicles that could not be accurately allocated to specific source categories.

KEY: R = revised.

NOTES: Total lead emissions decreased sharply from 1970 to 1995 as a result of regulatory actions. The lead content of leaded gasoline was reduced dramatically in 1985. In addition, unleaded gasoline was introduced in 1975 for use in automobiles  equipped with catalytic control devices. By 1995, unleaded gasoline sales accounted for 99% of the gasoline market.
The methodologies used to estimate emissions constantly evolve and undergo major changes. Improved methods are often used to revise estimates for previous years. Therefore, some estimates in this table may not match estimates produced in previous reports, and some trends may not be consistent across years in which major methodology changes have occurred. Numbers may not add to totals due to rounding.

SOURCES: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Air Pollutant Emission Trends Update: 1970-1997 (EPA 454/E-98-007) (Research Triangle Park, NC: December 1998),  table A-7; also available at Internet website http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends98/emtrnd.html, as of Sept. 22, 2000.