Table 4-6. Energy Consumption by Mode of Transportation (Trillion Btu)

Table 4-6. Energy Consumption by Mode of Transportation (Trillion Btu)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Air                             
Certificated carriersa                             
Jet fuel 264 525 1,061 1,020 R1,150 1,366 R1,678 R1,553 R1,588 R1,614 R1,684 1,730 1,780 1,844 1,873
General aviationb                             
Aviation gasoline 29 35 66 50 63 51 42 43 38 32 32 R35 R35 35 37
Jet fuel N 8 28 61 103 93 90 78 67 61 R63 R76 R82 R87 110
Highway                             
Gasoline, diesel and other fuels                              
Passenger car and motorcycle 5,146 6,215 8,485 9,282 8,773 8,963 8,720 8,063 8,203 8,406 8,510 8,534 8,677 R8,762 9,052
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle N e 1,539 2,385 2,975 3,420 4,451 4,777 5,116 5,356 5,514 5,701 5,919 R6,173 6,322
Single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck N 1,921 550 752 960 1,026 1,159 1,133 1,142 1,177 1,253 1,278 1,305 R1,328 1,351
Combination truck N 923 1,019 1,273 1,808 1,942 2,238 2,331 2,388 2,462 2,587 2,743 2,801 R2,816 2,927
Bus 115 121 114 146 141 116 124 120 122 129 134 134 137 R142 145
Transitc                             
Electricity 10 9 9 9 8 14 17 17 16 17 17 17 17 17 P18
Motor fuel                              
Diesel 29 34 38 51 60 84 90 92 95 94 94 94 96 R99 P97
Gasoline and other nondiesel fuelsd 24 16 9 1 1 6 4 4 5 6 8 8 8 7 P6
Compressed natural gas N N N N N N N N <1 <1 1 R1 2 3 P4
Rail, Class I (in freight service)                             
Distillate/diesel fuel 480 498 492 507 541 431 432 403 417 428 462 483 496 496 497
Amtrak                             
Electricity N N N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Distillate/diesel fuel N N N 9 9 9 11 11 11 12 10 9 10 10 10
Water                             
Residual fuel oil 592 463 565 608 1,340 687 947 1,014 982 791 806 881 853 750 841
Distillate/diesel fuel oil 109 90 114 152 205 236 286 284 308 299 304 324 346 357 360
Gasoline N N 75 91 132 132 163 214 165 109 112 133 124 123 120
Pipeline                             
Natural gas 358 516 745 601 654 519 680 620 606 644 707 722 734 775 655

a Domestic operations only.
b Includes fuel used in air taxi operations, but not commuter operations.
c Prior to 1984, excludes commuter rail, automated guideway, ferryboat, demand responsive vehicles, and most  rural and smaller systems.
d Gasoline and all other nondiesel fuels such as liquified natural gas, methanol, and propane, except compressed natural gas.
e Included in other single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck category.

KEY: Btu = British thermal units; kWh = kilowatt-hour; N = data do not exist; P = preliminary; R = revised.

NOTES: The following conversion rates were used:
Jet fuel = 135,000 Btu/gal.  Compressed natural gas = 138,700 Btu/gal.
Aviation gasoline = 120,200 Btu/gal.Distillate fuel = 138,700 Btu/gal.
Automotive gasoline = 125,000 Btu/gal.Residual fuel = 149,700 Btu/gal.
Diesel motor fuel = 138,700 Btu/gal.Natural gas = 1,031 Btu/ft3
Electricity 1kWh = 3,412 Btu, negating electrical system loses. To include electrical system loses, multiply this conversion factor by approximately 3.

SOURCES:
Air:
Certificated air carriers:
1960-98: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html, as of July 5, 2000.
General aviation:
1960-80: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Policy, Plans, and Management Analysis, FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation (Washington, DC: Annual issues).
1985-97: Ibid., General Aviation and Avionics Survey (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 5.1 and similar tables in earlier editions. 
1998: Ibid., FAA Aerospace Forecasts Fiscal Years 2000-2011 (Washington, DC: March 2000), table 29.
Highway: 
1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.
1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.
Transit: 
Electricity/motor fuel/compressed natural gas: 
1960-98: American Public Transit Association, Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: February 1999), tables 65, 66, 67, and similar tables in earlier editions.
Rail: 
1960-98: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: May 1999), p. 40.
Amtrak: 
1975-98: Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communication.
Water: 
Residual and distillate/diesel fuel oil: 
1960-80: American Petroleum Institute, Basic Petroleum Data Book (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables 10, 10a, 12, and 12a. 
1985-98: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables 2 and 4, and similar tables in earlier editions.
Gasoline: 
1970-98: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table MF-24 and similar tables in earlier editions.
Pipeline:
1960-96: U.S. Department of Energy, Natural Gas Annual 1997 (Washington, DC: October 1998), table 101.
1997-98: Ibid., table 1.