Highway Profile

Highway Profile

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Financial 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 R1998
Government receipts ($ millions)                 
 Total federal 2,771 6,160 9,949 14,576 17,854 19,851 R23,196 R21,648 24,509
Highway trust funda   2,531i 5,464i 7,615i 13,380i 16,582i 18,835j R22,036j 20,500j 23,396j
Other  240 696 2,334 1,196 1,272 1,016 R1,160 R1,148 1,113
 State and local total                  
State and D.C.  6,055 11,737 19,666 40,026 47,699 50,064 R52,808 R58,087 58,806
Local  2,367 3,866 10,219 20,842 25,759 26,432 R26,767 R27,686 28,266
 Total 11,193 21,763 39,834 75,444 91,312 96,347 R102,771 R107,421 111,581
Government expenditures ($ millions)                 
 Total federal 197 425 874 664 1,306 1,402 R1,598 R1,315 1,355
Highway trust funda   27 83 315 358 965 1,092 R1,384 R1,103 1,156
Otherb   170 342 559 306 341 310 R214 212 199
 State and local total                  
State and D.C.  7,125 14,100 25,936 45,609 55,569 56,981 59,709 61,534 65,507
Local  3,435 6,304 14,953 29,135 33,317 35,095 R36775 R39,104 41,093
 Total 10,757 20,829 41,763 75,408 90,192 93,478 R98,082 R101,953 107,955
State highway user tax revenuesc ($ millions)                 
 Motor fuel tax 3,374k 6,433k 9,485k 19,658k 25,860k 26,881k 27,555l 28,477l 29,803l
 Other motor fuel receiptsd 22 44 92 220 101 108 63 55 58
 Motor vehicle registration fees 1,514m 2,873m 5,173m 10,257m 12,388m 11,942m 13,234n 13,631n 14,552n
 Other motor vehicle feese 235 577 1,490 3,353 4,505 4,416 4,689 4,704 5,068
 Motor carrier taxesf 110 176 323 695 875 770 726 729 861
 Miscellaneous fees 68 181 615 1,761 2,708 3,307 3,489 3,785 4,165
 Total 5,323 10,284 17,177 35,944 46,437 47,424 49,756 51,381 54,507
Inventory                 
Rural/urban mileage by ownership                 
 Rural mileage                  
Under state control  658,896o 707,002o 750,479p 702,486p 690,372p 690,924p R691,156q 692,767q 660,834q
Under federal controlg   111,912 187,696 246,130 178,188 173,650 170,568 R168,938 167,369 118,369
Under local control  2,345,317 2,274,714 2,234,327 2,241,608 2,228,788 2,231,029 R2,232,793 2,248,357 2,285,447
 County roads 1,742,404 1,732,981 1,542,984 1,616,634 1,624,982 1,626,927 R1,627,639 1,642,468 1,647,025
 Town and township roads 538,651 510,174 458,231 437,460 423,908 424,529 426,170 426,433 426,340
 Other local roads 64,262 31,559 233,112 187,514 179,898 179,573 R178,984 179,456 212,082
 Total rural mileage 3,116,125 3,169,412 3,230,936 3,122,282 3,092,810 3,092,520 R3,092,887 3,108,493 3,064,650
 Urban mileage                 
Under state control  50,158 74,103 97,287 95,778 109,947 111,766 R111,924 112,226 110,017
Under federal controlg   N N 1,495 1,024 1,484 1,509 R1,470 1,464 1,485
Under local control  N N 530,119 647,842 702,354 706,431 R713,371 722,418 730,152
 County roads N N 71,357 95,929 115,388 117,518 R117,181 117,487 117,016
 Town and township roads N N 37,583 42,752 74,630 60,561 60,926 74,402 75,195
 Other local roads 379,410 486,567 421,179 509,161 512,336 528,352 R535,264 530,529 537,941
 Total urban mileage 429,568 560,670 628,901 744,644 813,785 819,706 R826,765 836,108 841,654
Total rural and urban mileage  3,545,693 3,730,082 3,859,837 3,866,926 3,906,595 3,912,226 R3,919,652 3,944,601 3,906,304
Rural/urban mileage by functional system                 
 Rural mileage                 
Interstate   N N 31,905r R33,547r 32,457r 32,580r 32,820s 32,817s 32,813s
Other principal arterial  N N 82,569 83,802 97,175 97,948 98,131 98,257 98,852
Minor arterial  N N 149,057 144,774 138,120 137,151 137,359 R137,497 137,308
Major collector  N N 439,000 436,352 431,115 431,712 432,117 432,714 432,408
Minor collector  N N 299,613 293,922 282,011 274,081 273,198 272,362 272,140
Local  N N 2,228,792 2,129,885 2,111,932 2,119,048 R2,119,262 R2,135,485 2,091,127
Total rural mileage  3,116,125t 3,169,412t 3,230,936 3,122,282 3,092,810 3,092,520 R3,092,887 R3,109,132 3,064,648
 Urban mileage                 
Interstate  N N 9,215 11,527 13,126 13,164 R13,217 R13,247 13,312
Other freeways and expressways  N N 6,774 7,668 8,994 8,970 R9,027 R9,063 9,127
Other principal arterial  N N 44,155 51,968 53,110 52,796 R52,983 R53,223 53,132
Minor arterial  N N 66,377 74,659 87,857 88,510 R89,020 R89,195 89,496
Collector  N N 68,387 78,254 86,089 87,331 R87,790 R88,049 88,071
Local  N N 433,993 520,568 564,609 568,935 R574,728 R583,973 588,504
Total urban mileage  429,568 560,670 628,901 744,644 813,785 819,706 R826,765 R836,740 841,642
Total rural and urban mileage  3,545,693 3,730,082 3,859,837 3,866,926 3,906,595 3,912,226 R3,919,652 R3,945,872 3,906,290
U.S. roads and streets by surface                 
 Paved mileage                 
Rural  919,082 1,188,080 1,490,050t 1,550,283t 1,561,649t 1,591,334t R1,582,166u 1,605,804u 1,612,251u
Urban  311,387 470,341 582,642 704,539 780,530 786,934 R798,484 804,131 808,093
Total  1,230,469 1,658,421 2,072,692 2,254,822 2,342,179 2,378,268 R2,380,650 2,409,935 2,420,344
 Percent paved 34.7%  44.5% 53.7% 58.3% 60.0% 60.8% R60.5%  R60.9%  61.3% 
 Unpaved mileage                 
Rural  2,197,043t 1,981,332t 1,740,886t 1,571,999t 1,531,161 1,501,186t R1,518,310u 1,510,330u 1,490,488u
Urban  118,181 90,329 46,259 40,105 33,255 32,772 R35,227 38,019 38,061
Total  2,315,224 2,071,661 1,787,145 1,612,104 1,564,416 1,533,958 R1,553,537 1,548,349 1,528,549
 Percent unpaved 65.3% 55.5% 46.3% 41.7% 40.0% 39.2% R39.5%  R39.1%  38.7% 
Number of employees                 
State and local govt. streets and highways  532,000v 607,000v 559,000v 569,000v 544,000 560,000v U 548,000v U
Highway and street construction  U U U 238,700w 226,100 227,900w 236,100w R242,800w 256,500w
Performance                 
Vehicle-miles of travel by functional system (millions)h                 
 Rural                 
Interstate  10,514x 79,516x 135,084x 200,173x 215,568 223,382y 232,565y R240,255y 251,520y
Other principal arterial  N N 132,958 175,133 207,569 215,567 221,403 R228,716 237,704
Minor arterial  N N 129,816 155,733 149,760 153,028 157,444 R163,342 165,780
Major collector  N N 150,186 190,512 182,000 186,212 190,923 R201,790 203,580
Minor collector  N N 39,282 49,948 48,529 49,936 50,107 R52,574 54,278
Local  N N 84,704 97,379 104,915 105,164 R107,752 R114,673 120,595
Total Rural   400,463 539,472 672,030 868,878 908,341 933,289 R960,194 R1,001,350 1,033,457
 Urban                 
Interstate  13,365 81,532 161,242 278,901 330,577 341,515 351,579 R361,401 374,622
Other freeways and expressways  N N 79,690 127,465 147,534 151,509 157,502 R159,622 166,626
Other principal arterial  N N 229,469 335,543 364,200 370,365 377,776 R385,125 388,073
Minor arterial  N N 175,030 236,225 286,165 293,228 299,345 R301,912 309,295
Collector  N N 83,043 106,297 120,088 126,883 129,310 R130,143 131,919
Local  N N 126,791 191,053 200,683 205,907 208,374 R222,142 228,530
Total urban  318,299 570,252 855,265 1,275,484 1,449,247 1,489,407 1,523,886 R1,560,345 1,598,065
Total rural and urban 718,762 1,109,724 1,527,295 2,144,362 2,357,588 2,422,696 R2,484,080 R2,561,695 2,631,522
Highway demand for petroleum (thousand barrels)                 
 Motor fuel 1,378,095z 2,198,310z 2,737,143z 3,113,214z R3,353,320 3,424,616AA R3,492,285AA R3,580,620AA 3,687,704AA
 Asphalt and road oil 110,000BB 163,000BB 145,000BB 176,340CC 176,751 177,543CC R177,206CC 184,383CC 190,258CC
 Total 1,488,095 2,361,310 2,882,143 3,289,554 R3,530,071 3,602,159 R3,669,491 R3,765,003 3,877,962
Safety                 
Fatalities 36,399DD 52,627DD 51,091DD 44,599DD 40,716 41,817DD 42,065DD R42,013DD 41,501DD
Injured persons N N N 3,231,000 3,266,000 3,465,000 R3,483,000 3,348,000 3,192,000
Crashes N N N 6,471,000 6,496,000 6,699,000 6,770,000 6,624,000 6,335,000

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available

aThe Federal Highway Trust Fund was created with the enactment of the Highway Revenue Act of 1956.  The total receipts shown for 1995 are overstated by approximately $1.59 billion due to a fiscal year(FY) 1994 error by the Treasury Department in reconciling estimated deposits to the actual tax revenue.The correction was made after the close of FY1994 and is shown in FY1995 receipts.
bFigures obtained by addition/subtraction and may not appear directly in data source.
cRevenues not necessarily allocated to highway expenditures.
dIncludes distributors and dealers licenses, inspection fees, fines and penalties, and miscellaneous receipts.
eIncludes drivers licenses, title fees, special title taxes, fines and penalties, estimated service charges, and local collections.
fIncludes carrier gross receipt taxes; mileage, ton-mile and passenger-mile taxes; special license fees and franchise  taxes; and certificate or permit fees.
gMileage in Federal parks, forests, and reservations that are not a part of the state and local highway system.
hHighway category classifications changed several times before 1980. Actual 1960 data categories were:  main Rural Roads, local Rural Roads and Urban Streets; 1970 data categories were: Rural Interstate, Rural Other Arterial, Other Rural, Urban Interstate and Other Urban.

NOTES: Motor vehicle injury and crash data in this profile come from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's General Estimates System (GES). The data from GES, which began operation in 1988, are obtained from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all police-reported crashes, and the GES sample includes only crashes where a police accident report was completed and the crash resulted in property damage, injury,  or death. The resulting figures do not take into account crashes which were not reported to the police or  which did not result in at least property damage.

Earlier editions of NTS, particularly the 1993 Historical Compendium, used crash and injury figures estimated by the National Safety Council, which employed a different set of methods to arrive at its figures. Thus, the injury and crash figures in this edition of NTS may not be comparable with those found in earlier editions.
In 1998, FHWA instituted a new method of creating mileage based tables derived from the Highway Peformance Monitoring  System (HPMS). See Chapter 1 accuracy profiles for more information about the HPMS.

SOURCES: Unless otherwise noted, please refer to chapter tables for sources.

iU.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table HF-210.
jIbid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998), tables HF-10A and HF-10.
kIbid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table MF-201A.
lIbid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998), table MF-1.
mIbid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table MV-202.
nIbid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC:1996, 1997, 1998) table MV-2.
oIbid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table M-203.
pIbid., Table HM-210.
qIbid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998), table HM-10.
rIbid., Table HM-220.
sIbid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998), table HM-20.
tIbid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table HM-212.
uIbid., Table HM-12.
vU.S. Department of Commerce, Statistical Abstract of the United States,various years, State and Local Government Section.
wIbid., Internet site http://stats.bls.gov/sahome.html, as of Aug. 16, 2000.
xU.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Summary to 1985 (Washington, DC: April 1987), table VM-201.
yIbid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Various years), table VM-2, VM-2A.
zIbid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A (total fuel consumed in thousands of gallons divided by 42).
AAIbid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1(total fuel consumed in thousands of gallons divided by 42).
BBU.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data Report, 1960-1980 (Washington, DC), p. 13.
CCIbid., Petroleum Supply Annual (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 2.
DDU.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, NRD-30, personal communication.