Index

Index

A

Accidents

airport, 121

air transportation, 105, 111, 117, 326-327

commuter carrier, 105, 119, 121

general aviation, 105, 123, 330

hazardous material-related, 111, 112

near mid-air collisions, 124, 429

on-demand air taxi, 105, 122

by phase of operation, 121

buses, 105, 138

transit, 148-153

data sources, 429-435

distribution by mode of transport, 105-106

fatalities. See Fatalities

grade crossing, 105, 110

hazardous materials-related, 111-112

highway, 334

injuries. See Injuries

motorcycle, 105, 135, 338

motor vehicle, 105, 111, 129, 135, 338

alcohol involvement, 133, 139

circumstances and conditions, 133, 141

effectiveness of restraint devices, 144, 431

hazardous material-related, 111, 112

number of vehicles in, 133

by posted speed limit, 142

petroleum spills, 315

pipeline, 102, 105, 361, 363

property damage. See Property damage, accidents

railroad, 105, 111-112, 148-153, 165, 433-434

distribution by type, 163

hazardous material-related, 111, 112

railroad employees in, 166

by train-miles traveled, 165

recreational boating, 105, 172

personal watercraft, 172

transit systems, 105, 147-153, 352, 432-433

truck, 105, 136, 342

waterborne transportation, 105, 111, 112, 171, 434

Accommodations, travel, 53

Administrators Fact Book, 406

ADT Automotive Used Car Market Report, 414

Aerospace Facts and Figures, 412

Aerospace Industries Association, 412

Age of vehicles/vessels

Amtrak fleet, 39

marine vessels, 40-41

motor vehicles, 33

railroad locomotive fleet, 39

transit vehicles, 38

Age patterns, population, xvii

traveler characteristics, 52, 54

trends, xvii

Agricultural sector

economic indices, 189, 190, 191, 192, xviii

gasoline demand, 242, 383

Air bags, 144

Air Carrier Financial Statistics Quarterly, 407, 445

Air carriers

accidents, 105, 117, 119, 326-327, 429

hazardous materials-related, 111, 112

by phase of operation, 121, 429

See also Air carriers, fatalities; Air carriers, injuries

aircraft miles traveled, 45, 322-323, 369

arrivals/departures, 56, 419-420

accident rate per, 117, 119

canceled flights, 85, 427

data sources/analysis, 407, 409-410, 417, 419-420, 421, 422, 426, 429, 463-464

delayed flights, 426, 427

causes, 85

number of, 85

diverted flights, 85

energy consumption, 240, 381

fatalities, 99, 117, 119, 326, 327

hazardous materials-related, 111

by phase of operation, 121

fleet characteristics, 17

freight transportation, 419-420

length of haul, 65, 375

revenue per ton-mile, 210

revenue tons, 56

ton-miles, 64, 325-326, 374

fuel consumption, 238, 243, 379, 384, 463-464

efficiency/intensity, 257, 258, 393, 394, 465

injuries, 102, 117, 119, 429

hazardous materials-related, 111

See also Air carriers, fatalities

mishandled baggage reports, 84, 426

number of aircraft, 13, 322

number of employees, 322

number of operators, 4, 321, 407

number of revenue passengers, 56, 324, 325

on-time flight operations, 84, 426, 427

passenger fare trends, 205, 323, 445

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 372

average trip length, 65, 375, 422

revenue per, 209

passengers denied boarding by, 83, 426

revenue

freight, 210

operating, 211, 321

passenger, 56, 209

vehicle-miles traveled, 417

See also Aircraft; Airports; Air transportation; Commuter air transportation; General aviation

Air Carrier Traffic Statistics, 420

Aircraft

accident rate, 117

data sources, 409-410, 412

exhaust emissions

carbon monoxide, 295

lead, 301

nitrogen oxides, 296

particulate matter, 298, 299

standards, 286-287

sulfur dioxide, 300

volatile organic compounds, 297

fleet characteristics, 17-18

flight hours, 117, 322-323

fuel consumption, 243, 384

fuel prices, 199

miles traveled, 45, 369

accident and injury rates, 117

fuel consumption, 243, 384

passenger miles, 323

per aircraft, 243, 384

revenue miles, 322

number of, 13, 409-410

producer price indices, 201

sales/delivery of, 15, 412

See also Air carriers; Air transportation; Commuter air transportation; General aviation

Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Air Carriers, 419, 420

Airports

accidents, 121

aircraft departures, number of, 56

causes of flight delays, 85

data sources, 406, 415, 420

noise exposure, 317, 470-471

number of, 5, 406

number of passengers boarded, 58-59, 420

passenger screening results, 125, 429

private use, 5

public use, 5

runway conditions, 5, 33, 415

Air quality

areas not meeting federal standards, 306-310

urban trends, 302-305

See also Exhaust emissions; specific pollutant

Air taxi, 99, 102, 105, 108, 122, 326, 327

data sources, 409, 429

Air traffic control, 215

causes of flight delays, 85

Air Traffic Statistics, 422

Air transportation

accidents, 105, 111, 112

data sources, 429, 445, 452, 453-454

economic value, 181, 182

employees

injuries and fatalities, 113

productivity, 219

trends, 212, 213, 215

wages and salaries, 216-218

fatalities, 99, 113

federal expenditures, 226, 453-454

federal revenues from, 224, 225, 452

freight

growth, 72

hazardous materials, 77

gasoline demand, 242, 383, 460

hazardous materials incidents, 111, 112

injuries, 102, 111, 112

long-distance travel characteristics, 51

near mid-air collisions, 124, 429

passenger arrivals from foreign countries, 60

passenger departures to foreign countries, 61

passenger expenditures, 197

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 372

passenger screening results, 125

personal consumption expenditures, 202, 203

producer price indices, 201

transportation-related demand, 183, 185

See also Air carriers; Aircraft; Airports; Commuter air transportation; General aviation

Alabama

port tonnage, 70

urban air pollution, 302

Alaska

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 306

Canadian border crossings, 62

international trade gateways, 66

port tonnage, 70

Alcohol-related incidents

motor vehicle, 133

blood alcohol concentration, 139

fatalities, 133, 139

prevention, 144

in recreational boating, 172

state laws, 140

in transit systems, 156, 157

Alternative fuels, 245, 460-461

American Automobile Association, 445

American Gas Association, 406, 407, 446

American Petroleum Institute, 421, 425, 441

American Public Transit Association, 411, 413, 418-419, 422, 445, 446, 463, 464

American Travel Survey, 419

American Trucking Association, 420, 425

Amtrak

age of vehicles, 39, 416

car-miles traveled, 45, 252, 354, 369

data sources/analysis, 403-405, 407, 411, 413, 416, 422, 428, 446

delays, 95

employees, 353

energy consumption, 238, 240, 252, 354, 379, 381

efficiency/intensity, 257, 263, 393

locomotive fleet characteristics, 39

miles of track operated, 3, 353, 367

data sources, 403-405

new vehicles, sales/delivery of, 15

number of vehicles, 13, 353, 411

on-time performance, 95, 428

operating expenses, 353

operating revenue, 211, 353, 446

passenger fare trends, 205, 354, 446

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 354, 372

revenue per passenger-mile, 209, 354

stations served, 8, 368, 407

train-miles traveled, 45, 252, 354, 369

trip length, 65, 354, 375, 422

Annual Energy Review, 440, 457-458

Annual Report of Consumer Expenditure Survey, 444

Annual Retail Trade Survey, 437

Argentina, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Arizona

airports, 58

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 306

international trade gateways, 66, 68

Mexican border crossings, 63

roadway congestion, 90, 91

cost values, 93, 94

fuel wasted due to, 265, 266, 268, 269

urban air pollution, 303, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 87, 88

Arkansas

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 303

urban traffic delays, 87

Arson, 155

Assault, 154, 156

Association of American Railroads, 403, 407, 408, 411, 416, 419, 421, 425, 446, 464, 465

Association of Oil Pipe Lines, 405, 407, 421, 422, 425

Australia

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Austria, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Automated Broker Interface System, 424

Automobiles. See Passenger cars; Personal use vehicles

Aviation Safety and Capacity Expansion Act, 452

 

B

Bahama Islands

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Barbados

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Barges, 40, 41, 356, 358, 359

revenue per ton-mile, 210

Basic Petroleum Data Book, 421, 425, 441

Belgium

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Bermuda

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Bicycle Council, 413

Bicycle Manufacturers Association, 413

Bicycles

data sources, 413

fatalities, 99, 108, 132, 133

injuries, 102

as means of transport to work, 50

producer price indices, 201

sales/delivery of, 15

Boating Statistics, 412

Boats. See Marine vessels; Recreational boating

Bobit Publishing Co., 414

Bomb threats, 125, 429

Brazil

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Bridges, condition of, 37, 416

Budget of the United States, 450, 453

Bureau of Census, 410, 423, 437, 438, 439-440, 441-442, 446, 448, 450, 451, 455, 462

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 436-437, 449

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 403, 408, 416, 419, 421, 436, 440, 441, 442, 443-444, 447, 448, 449-450

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 407, 417, 419, 420, 422, 423, 427, 429, 445, 450, 463

Internet site, 425

Burglary, 155

Buses

accidents, 105, 138, 148-153

average trip length, 65, 375, 422

Canadian border crossings, 62

data sources, 422, 445

economic indices, 344

employees, 344, 450

energy consumption, 240, 381

fatalities, 99, 108, 132, 138, 148-153, 345-346

freight transportation expenditures, 198

fuel consumption, 238, 249, 345, 379, 389

fuel economies, 249, 257, 262, 345, 389, 393, 399

injuries, 102, 138, 148-153

intercity, 197, 198, 203, 205, 209, 212, 344

labor productivity, 219

long-distance travel characteristics, 51

Mexican border crossings, 63

number of, 13, 344

number of operators, 344

number of passengers, 345

passenger expenditures, 197

passenger fare trends, 205

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 345, 372

personal consumption expenditures, 203

professional operators, 215, 217

revenue per passenger-mile, 209

sales/delivery of, 15

school, 197, 212, 344

transit, 212

accidents and injuries, 148-153

age of vehicles, 38

average trip length, 351

criminal behavior in, 154-158, 433

economic indices, 347, 348

fuel economies, 257, 262, 351-352, 393, 399

inventory, 349

number of, 13

passenger expenditures, 197

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 350, 372

speed, 351

vehicle miles-traveled, 45, 350, 369

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 249, 344, 345, 369, 389

accident and injury rate, 138

Business travel

fleet characteristics, 20

general aviation fleet, 328, 329, 330

trip characteristics, 52

vehicle sales, 23

 

C

CAFE standards, 261, 398

California

airports/water ports, 58, 59, 70

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 306

international trade gateways, 66, 67, 68

Mexican border crossings, 63

roadway congestion, 89, 90

cost values, 92, 93, 94

fuel wasted due to, 267, 268, 269

urban air pollution, 302, 303, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 86, 87

Canada

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

data sources, 422, 423, 424-425

land freight shipments

border crossings, 68

value, 75

land-passenger border crossings, 62

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Carbon dioxide emissions, 311, 468-469

Carbon monoxide emissions, 295

federal standards, 273-291

in reformulated gasoline engines, 294

by vehicle type, 292-293, 467

Carload Way Bill Statistics, 425

Carpools, 50

Cars. See Passenger cars; Personal-use vehicles

China

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

space launches, 79

Cities. See Urban areas; specific state

Clean Air Act, 468

Amendments of 1990, 441

Coal

consumption by transportation sector, 237

federal government consumption, 253, 391

Coastwise transportation, 64, 65, 69, 356, 357, 358, 374, 375, 376

Colombia

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Colorado

airports/water ports, 58

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 306-307

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 264, 267

urban air pollution, 302

urban traffic delays, 86

Commercial Space Launch Act, 426

Commercial vehicle production, 21, 27

Commodity Flow Surveys, 72, 73-74, 423-424

Communications industries/services, 189, 190, 191, 192

Commuter air transportation

accidents, 105, 119, 429

by phase of operation, 121

aircraft-miles traveled, 119

arrivals/departures, 119

data sources, 429

fatalities, 99, 108, 119, 429

by phase of operation, 121

flight hours, 119

injuries, 102, 119, 429

Commuter rail transportation

accidents, 148-153

age of vehicles, 38

average trip length, 65, 351, 375, 422

criminal behavior in, 154-158, 433

data sources, 422

economic indices, 347, 348

energy consumption, 351, 352

fatalities, 108, 148-153

injuries, 148-153

new vehicles, sales/delivery of, 15

number of transit operators, 349

number of vehicles, 13, 349

passenger fare trends, 205

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 350, 372

revenue per passenger-mile, 209

speed, 351

system mileage, 3, 367

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 350, 369

Commuter travel, 50

See also Business travel; Commuter air transportation; Commuter rail transportation; Transit vehicles/systems

Connecticut

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 303, 304

urban traffic delays, 86

Construction industries, 189, 190, 191, 192, xviii

Consumer Expenditure Survey, 444-445

Consumer price indices, 200, 210, 441-443

Consumer spending, 202

cost of automobile ownership, 204, 445

data sources, 438, 440, 444-446

fares, 197, 203, 205, 347, 348, 354, 440, 445-446

freight, 198

fuel, 199, 200, 440-443

household, xviii

taxis, 336

user-operated transportation, 203, 204, 336

Containerships, 29

Corrosive materials, 78

Courier services, 72, 77, 340, 446

Crashes. See Accidents; Fatalities; Injuries

Criminal acts

air passenger screening results, 125, 429

state DUI/DWI regulations, 140

in transit systems, 154, 433

Crude oil, 9, 65, 76, 361, 375, 377

Current Population Survey, 439

Czech Republic, motor vehicle production, 26-28

 

D

Data sources/analysis, v

age of vehicles/vessels, 415, 416-417

airports, 406, 415, 420

air transportation, 407, 409-410, 412, 417, 419-420, 422, 426, 429, 445, 453-454, 463-464

passenger screening, 429

safety, 429

Amtrak, 403-405, 407, 411, 413, 416, 422, 428, 446

bicycles, 413

buses, 422, 445

commuter rail transportation, 422

consumer price indices, 441-443

economic indices, 436-455

exhaust emissions, 466-469

freight tonnage/ton-miles, 420-426

fuel consumption/efficiency, 414, 458-466

fuel prices, 440-441

gas pipeline, 405-406, 407, 435, 446

General Estimates System, 134, 135, 137, 138

government revenues/expenditures, transportation-related, 450-455

Gross Domestic Product, 436-439

hazardous materials, 423-424, 435

international travel, 420

long-distance traveler/trip characteristics, 419

motorcycles, 413, 431

motor vehicles, 410, 412, 414, 415, 417-418, 427-428, 430-432, 462-463

use/effectiveness of restraints, 431, 432

noise exposure, 470-471

number of vehicles/carriers, 407-412

oil pipeline, 405-406, 407, 421, 422, 425, 446

oil spills/leaks, 469-470

petroleum supply, 457-458

port traffic, 422-423

producer price indices, 443-444

property damage reporting thresholds, 114

railroads, 403, 407-408, 411, 413, 416, 419, 421, 425, 433-434, 446, 464

recreational boating, 412, 434

roadway congestion, 427-428

roadways, 403, 404-405, 406, 415-416

safety performance, 429-435

sales of vehicles/vessels, 412-413, 414

system mileage, 403-406

transit systems, 405, 411, 413, 416, 418-419, 432-433, 445-446, 454, 464

transportation employment, 429, 447-450

trucks/trucking, 408, 410-411, 414, 420, 425, 446

vehicle-miles traveled, 417-419

waterborne transportation, 405, 408, 411-412, 413, 415, 417, 421-422, 423, 425, 434, 446, 464

Delaware, urban air pollution, 305

Demand responsive transit

accidents and injuries, 108, 148-153

average trip length, 351

criminal behavior in, 154-158

economic indices, 347, 348

energy consumption, 351-352

fleet characteristics, 20

number of employees, 349

number of operators, 349

number of vehicles, 13, 349

passenger expenditures, 197

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 350, 372

professional operators, 215, 217

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 350, 369

See also Taxis

Demographics

educational attainments, 55

gender, 54, xvii, xviii

race/ethnicity, 54

traveler/trip characteristics, 54-55, 419

See also Age patterns, population; Population, U.S.

Denmark

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Diesel engine emissions

federal standards, 273-284, 288

rates, 293

Diesel fuel, 199, 245, 250, 252, 389, 460

Amtrak consumption, 354

consumption by transportation sector, 238, 239, 240, 241, 379, 381

marine vessel consumption, 358

District of Columbia, 58

air quality, 307

roadway congestion, 91

cost values, 94

fuel wasted due to, 266, 269

traffic delays, 87

urban air pollution, 305

Dominican Republic

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Drug abuse, 156

See also Alcohol-related incidents

 

E

Economic indices

air carrier performance, 56, 209, 210, 211, 321, 322-326

aircraft sales, 15

Amtrak, 353

bus operations, 344

commodity shipments, value of, 73-74

compensation in transportation industries, 216-218

consumer price indices, 200, 441-443

data sources/analysis, 436-455

disposable personal income, 202

freight transportation

expenditures, 198

growth, 72

revenue per ton-mile, 210

fuel prices, 199, 200

gas pipeline operations, 362

government expenditures, transportation-related, 184, 186, 187, 188, 223, 226

government revenues, transportation-related, 223-225

gross domestic product, 181-186, 189-192, xviii

by social function, 193

household expenditures, xviii

household income, xviii

long-distance travel and, 55

international trade

freight shipments, 66-67, 75

transportation-related exports, 183, 185

oil pipeline revenues, 361

operating revenues, by mode, 211

passenger car sales, 21-24

passenger fare trends, 205, 323

passenger-mile trends, 194

personal expenditures

by economic category, 202

passenger expenditures, 197

transportation services, 202, 203

personal watercraft sales, 172

producer price indices, 201, 443-444

rail transport, 181, 182, 198, 203, 210, 211, 353, 446

revenue per passenger-mile, by mode, 209

traffic congestion costs, 92-94, 427-428

transit operations, 347-348

transportation equipment, 201

transportation-related final demand, 183-188

transportation services, 201

trucking, 181, 182, 201, 203, 211, 219, 340

See also Employment; Fuel economies; Gross Domestic Product; International trade

Economic Report of the President, 439

Educational attainment, traveler characteristics, 55

Educational services, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193

personal expenditures, 202

Electric power, 245

Amtrak consumption, 252, 263, 354

consumption by transportation sector, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 379, 381, 461

data sources, 440

federal government consumption, 253, 391

transit vehicle consumption, 250, 389

Emergency preparedness, 224, 225, 453

Employment

gender distribution, xviii

means of transport to work, 50

pipeline, 361

transportation occupations, 353, 356

air carrier, 322

bus transportation, 344

data sources, 429, 447-450

distribution by mode, 212-214, 215

fatalities, 113, 355, 429

motor vehicle-related, 336

productivity, 219, 449-450

professional operators, 215, 217

railroad injuries, 162, 166

roadway operations/construction, 213, 333

transit, 349

trends, 212-214, 215

trucking, 340

wage and salary trends, 216-218, 448-450

traveler status, 55

Energy consumption

carbon dioxide emissions, 311

by economic sector, 232

federal government, 253, 391

transit vehicles/systems, 351-352

for transportation, 231, 232, 237

by mode, 240-241, 381

See also Fuel consumption; Fuel efficiency/intensity; Gasoline; Natural gas; Petroleum

Energy Data Report, 405, 407

Energy efficiency/intensity. See Fuel efficiency/intensity

Energy Information Administration, 425, 440, 441, 457-458, 459, 460, 462, 464, 468, 469

Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., 405, 407, 420, 421, 422, 446

Environmental protection. See Exhaust emissions, federal standards; Recycling

Ethanol fuel, 245, 461

Europe

space launches, 79

See also specific country

Exhaust emissions, 292-293, 294

carbon dioxide, 311, 468-469

carbon monoxide, 273-295

data sources, 466-469

federal standards

aircraft engines, 286-287

heavy heavy-duty trucks, 284

light-duty vehicles, 273

light heavy-duty trucks, 283

light trucks, 273, 274-281

locomotives, 288-289

marine engines, 290-291

medium-duty passenger vehicles, 282

motorcycles, 285

lead, 301, 468

nitrogen oxides, 273-294, 296

particulate emissions, 273-284, 288, 298, 299

in reformulated gasoline engines, 294

sulfur dioxide, 300, 467, 468

Experimental aircraft, 18

Explosives

detected at airports, 125, 429

shipments, 78

Exports. See International trade

 

F

FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation, 409, 417

Fatalities

air transportation, 99, 117, 326, 327, 429

commuter carrier, 119, 121

general aviation, 123, 330

on-demand air taxi, 122, 326, 327

by phase of operation, 121

bicyclist, 99, 108, 132, 133

buses, 99, 108, 132, 138, 148-153, 345-346

comparison across modes, 433

data sources, 429-435

distribution by mode, 99-100, 108-109

grade crossing, 99, 108, 110, 355

hazardous materials-related, 111

highway, 334

motorcycle, 99, 108, 132, 135, 338

motor vehicle, 99, 108, 129

alcohol involvement, 133, 139

circumstances and conditions, 141

by highway type, 130-131

nonoccupant, 132, 133

number of vehicles in accident, 133

by posted speed limit, 142

prevention, 144, 432

by vehicle type, 132

occupational, 113, 166, 429

pedestrian, 99

pipeline-related, 99, 108, 361, 363

railroad, 99, 108, 111, 113, 148-153, 165, 355, 433-434

among railroad employees, 166

by train-miles traveled, 164, 165

by type of accident, 163

recreational boating, 172

personal watercraft, 172

transit systems, 99, 108, 147-153, 352, 432-433

truck, 99, 108, 132, 136, 342

waterborne transportation, 99, 108, 113, 171, 359, 360, 434

Federal Aviation Act, 407

Federal Aviation Administration, 114, 406, 409-410, 415, 417, 420, 425, 426, 429, 452, 463, 470-471

Operations Network database, 426, 427

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 408, 421, 425, 446

Federal government

contributions to GDP, 189-192

employment, transportation-related, 213, 447-448, 453-455

energy consumption, 253, 391, 464-465

exhaust emission standards, 273-291

revenues, transportation-related, 223-225, 450-453

road ownership, 332

spending, transportation-related, 184, 186, 187, 188, 226

transit subsidies, 347

trust funds, 224, 225, 227, 452, 453

See also specific U.S. department or agency

Federal Highway Administration, 114, 410, 415-416, 422, 451, 454, 455, 459, 462, 463, 468

Highway Performance Monitoring System, 403, 404-405, 406, 410, 417-418, 427

Federal Maritime Administration, 454

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, 408

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, 408

Federal Railroad Administration, 114

Federal Railroad Commission, 425

Federal Reserve Board of Governors, 439, 440

Federal Transit Act, 405, 445-446

Federal Transit Administration, 114, 405, 407, 411, 413, 416, 418-419, 422, 432, 445, 463, 464

Ferries, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 357

age of vessels, 38

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 372

vessel miles traveled, 45, 369

Financial services, 189, 190, 191, 192, xviii

Fishing, commercial, 356, 359

Flammable materials, 78

Florida

airports/water ports, 58, 70, 71

international trade gateways, 66, 67

roadway congestion, 89, 90, 91

cost values, 92, 93, 94

fuel wasted due to, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269

urban air pollution, 302, 303, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 86, 87, 88

Food services, 193

consumer price indices, 200

personal expenditures, 202

Foreign Trade Zones, 75

For-hire transportation services, 72, 193, xviii

economic value, 181-182, 189, 190, 191, 192

employment, 212-214

Formaldehyde emissions, 273-282

France

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Freight Commodity Statistics, 425

Freight transportation

air carrier, 419-420

growth, 72

revenue tons, 56

ton-miles, 64, 325-326, 374

by commodity, 73-74, 423-424

data sources, 421-422, 423-424, 440

expenditures, 198, 440

growth, 72

hazardous materials, 77, 78

length of haul, 65, 342, 375, 421-422

by commodity, 63-74

multiple mode, 72, 77

petroleum products, 76

See also Oil pipelines

producer price indices, 201

rail

growth, 72

international, 75

operating revenues, 353

ton-miles, 64, 374

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 369

truck, 340-342

growth, 72

international, 75

number of interstate carriers, 4

ton-miles, 64, 341, 374

waterborne, 29, 40-41, 70-71

distribution by vessel type, 29

domestic, 64, 69, 374, 376

fleet characteristics/performance, 29, 40-41, 356-359

growth, 72

international, 69, 376

top ports, 70-71

See also International trade; Tonnage/ton-miles

Fuel consumption

alternative fuels, 245, 460-461

Amtrak, 239, 241, 379, 381

aviation, 199, 238, 240, 243, 329, 379, 381, 384, 460

federal government, 253, 391

buses, 249, 389

data sources, 414, 440-443, 458-465

efficiency. See Fuel efficiency/intensity

federal government, 253, 391

gas pipeline operations, 363

by mode, 238-241, 379-381, 462-464

motorcycles, 246, 337, 386

motor vehicle, 199, 238, 240, 244, 337, 345, 379, 381, 385, 462

highway demand, 334

passenger cars, 246, 337, 386

price trends, 199, 200, 440-443

railroad, 238, 240, 251, 354, 379, 381, 390, 464

taxes, 200, 224, 225, 331

transit vehicles, 238, 240, 250, 379, 381, 389

trucks, 248, 249, 341, 388

wastage due to congestion, 264-269, 465-466

water transportation, 239, 241, 358, 379, 381

Fuel efficiency/intensity

aircraft, 243, 257, 258, 384, 393, 394

Amtrak, 257, 263, 393

buses, 249, 345, 389

CAFE standards, 261, 398

data sources, 465-466

highway vehicles, 257, 260, 338, 393, 396

motorcycles, 246, 257, 260, 338, 386, 393, 396

new truck sales, 25

passenger cars, 24, 246, 257, 260, 261, 338, 386, 393, 396, 398

imported, 261, 398

railroad, 251, 262, 354, 390, 399

transit buses, 257, 262, 393, 399

trucks, 25, 248, 249, 261, 341, 388, 398

 

G

Gas Facts, 406, 407, 446

Gasohol, 245

Gasoline, 441

consumer spending, 336

cost of operating automobile, 204

data sources, 459-460

marine vessel consumption, 358

personal consumption expenditures, 203

price trends, 199, 200

transportation consumption, 238, 239, 240, 241, 250, 329, 379, 381, 389, 459-460

transportation-related demand, 183, 185, 187, 188, 242, 383

Gender

labor force participation rate, xviii

population distribution, xvii

traveler characteristics, 54

General aviation

aircraft, 13

data sources, 409, 412, 417, 429

economic indices, 328

energy consumption, 240, 381

fatalities, 99, 108, 429

fleet characteristics, 17-18, 328-329

fuel consumption, 238, 329, 379

new aircraft, sales/delivery of, 15

number of aircraft, 328

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 329, 372

safety performance, 99, 105, 108, 123, 330, 429

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 329, 369, 417

General Aviation and Air Taxi Activity and Avionics Survey, 429, 463

General Aviation and Air Taxi Activity Survey, 417

General Aviation and Air Taxi Activity Survey, 409

General Aviation Manufacturers Association, 412

General Aviation Statistical Databook, 412

General Estimates System, 134, 135, 137, 138

Georgia

airports/water ports, 58, 66, 71

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 264, 267

urban air pollution, 302

urban traffic delays, 86

Germany

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

new retail car sales to U.S., 22

Glider aircraft, 18

Government

expenditures, transportation-related, 23, 184, 186, 187, 188, 223, 225, 453-455

highway, 331

transit systems, 347

marine vessel ownership, 357

revenues, transportation-related, 223-225, 450-453

highway, 331

trust fund balances, 227

See also Taxes

vehicle fleet, 20

See also Federal government; State and local government

Grade-crossing accidents and injuries, 99, 102, 105, 108, 110, 162, 166, 355

Grand Cayman

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Great Lakes, 356, 358

freight transportation

growth, 72

short tons, 69, 376

Greece

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Gross Domestic Demand, 187, 188, 436

Gross Domestic Product, xviii

distribution by industry, 189-192

for-hire transportation services, 181-182

methodology for analyzing, 436-439

by social function, 193

transportation-related final demand, 183-186, 438-439

trends, 194

Guam, air quality, 307

Guided vehicles, 148-153

 

H

Haiti

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Hawaii

airports/water ports, 58, 71

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 303

urban traffic delays, 86

Hazardous Materials Regulations, 408

Hazardous materials shipments, 453

accidents, 105, 111-112, 435

associated fatalities, 99, 108, 111, 435

associated injuries, 102, 111, 435

by class, 78

data sources, 423-424, 435

modal distribution, 77

by pipeline, 4, 435

accidents, 105

associated fatalities, 99, 108

associated injuries, 102

Health Care Financing Administration, 436

Health services, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193

consumer price indices, 200

personal expenditures, 202

Helicopters, 17, 412

sales/delivery of, 15

Highway Performance Monitoring System, 403, 404-405, 406, 410, 417-418, 427

Highways. See Roadways

Highway Statistics, 403, 406, 410, 416, 417, 422, 451

Highway vehicles

accidents, 105, 430-431

hazardous materials-related, 111, 112

data sources, 430-432

energy consumption, 238, 239, 240-241, 379, 381, 460-461, 462

alternative fuels, 245

gasoline demand, 242, 383

exhaust emissions, 296-301, 466-468

carbon monoxide, 295

lead, 301

nitrogen oxides, 296

particulate matter, 298, 299

sulfur dioxide, 300

volatile organic compounds, 297

fatalities, 99, 430

alcohol-related, 139

occupational, 113

freight transportation expenditures, 198

injuries, 102, 430-431

hazardous materials-related, 111

miles traveled, 45, 47, 369, 371

new, sales/delivery of, 15

numbers of, 13

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 372

See also Buses; Light Trucks; Motorcycles; Motor vehicles; Passenger cars; Personal-use vehicles; Trucks and trucking

Homicide, 154

Hong Kong

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Household characteristics, xviii

expenditures on household operations, 202

long-distance trips, 51-53, 55

Hydrocarbon emissions

federal standards, 273-291

in reformulated gasoline engines, 294

by vehicle type, 292-293

 

I

Idaho, 307

Illinois

airports/water ports, 58, 70

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

international trade gateways, 66

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 92, 94

fuel wasted due to, 266, 269

urban air pollution, 302, 304

urban traffic delays, 87

Immigrant population, xvii

Imports. See International trade

India, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Indiana

airports/water ports, 59, 71

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

roadway congestion, 89, 90

cost values, 92, 93

fuel wasted due to, 264, 265, 267, 268

urban air pollution, 302, 303

urban traffic delays, 86, 87

Industry Productivity Measures, 449

Injuries

air transportation, 102, 111, 112, 117, 429

commuter carrier, 119

general aviation, 123

on-demand air taxi, 122

bicyclists, 102

buses, 102, 138, 148-153

data sources, 429-435

distribution by mode of transport, 102-103

grade crossing, 102, 110, 162

hazardous materials-related, 111

highway, 334

motorcycle, 102, 135

motor vehicle, 102, 129, 135, 136, 138

pedestrians, 102

pipeline-related, 102, 361, 363

railroad, 102, 111-112, 148-153, 162, 165, 433-434

among railroad employees, 166

by train-miles traveled, 164, 165

by type of accident, 163

recreational boating, 172

personal watercraft, 172

transit systems, 102, 147-153, 352, 432-433

truck, 102, 136

waterborne transportation, 102, 111, 112, 171, 359, 434

See also Fatalities

Inland Waterways Revenue Act, 453

Insurance, 203, 336

Internal Revenue Service, 436

International trade

aircraft sales, 183, 185

air freight, 325, 326

automobile sales, 22, 183, 185

data sources, 422, 423, 424-425

gateway cities, 66-67, 68, 422

land shipments, 68, 75, 424-425

natural gas, 231

petroleum, 231

transportation-related demand, 183, 185, 438-439

value of shipments, 66-67, 422

waterborne, 69, 358, 376, 422-423

International Trade Administration, 412, 420

International travel

air arrivals/departures, 60, 61, 324, 325

air carrier revenue/expenses, 321, 322, 323

Canadian border traffic, 62

data sources, 420

economic value, 183, 185

Mexican border traffic, 62

waterborne, 356

Interstate Commerce Commission, 417, 420, 421, 446

Interstate highways, 334

condition, 34, 35

fatalities, 130-131

system mileage, 7, 8, 332, 333, 368

vehicle-miles traveled, 47, 336, 337, 371

Interstate motor carriers, 4, 408

Iowa

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 304

urban traffic delays, 87

Ireland

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Israel

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Italy

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

 

J

Jamaica

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Japan

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

new retail car sales to U.S., 22

 

K

Kansas

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 303

urban traffic delays, 86

Kentucky

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

roadway congestion, 89, 90

cost values, 92, 93

fuel wasted due to, 264, 267, 268

urban air pollution, 302, 303

urban traffic delays, 86, 87

Korea

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

 

L

Labor. See Employment

Licensing and registration

aircraft, 409

motor vehicle registration, 244, 246, 248, 249, 336, 410

consumer spending, 336

state government revenues, 331

trucks, 340

recreational boats, 412

space launches, 425-426

transit vehicles, 249, 250

Lighter-than-air aircraft, 18

Light rail. See Railroads, light rail

Light trucks, 25

accidents, 136

data sources, 414

exhaust emissions

federal standards, 273-281

rates, 292, 293, 294

fatalities, 108, 132, 136

fuel consumption, 248, 388

efficiency/intensity, 25, 257, 260, 261, 393, 396, 398

injuries, 136

safety belt use, 143

sales, 25

vehicle-miles traveled, 136

See also Trucks and trucking

Liquefied petroleum gas, 29, 285

Liquid Pipeline Directory, 405, 407

Lloyds Maritime Information Service, 411-412, 413, 415

Lloyds Register, 411-412, 413, 415

Local government. See State and local government

Local travel

employment, 212, 215, 216, 217, 218

expenditures, 198

trucking operations, 340

See also Commuter travel; Transit vehicles/systems

Long-distance travel

by calendar quarter, 51

data sources, 419

by distance traveled, 51

household characteristics, 55

household trips, 51-53

person-miles, 51-55

person trips, 51-55

by purpose of trip, 52

traveler characteristics, 54-55

travel party characteristics, 52

trip duration, 53

types of lodging used, 53

vehicle miles, 51-55

vehicle trips, 51-55

by vehicle type, 51

See also International travel

Louisiana

airports/water ports, 58, 70

international trade gateways, 66, 67

roadway congestion, 90

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 302, 304

urban traffic delays, 87

 

M

Mail and parcel shipments

air carrier revenue tons, 56

growth, 72

hazardous materials, 77

international, 75

Maine

Canadian border crossings, 62

port tonnage, 71

Maintenance and repair, including parts

automobile costs, 204

automobile spending, 336

employment trends in transportation industries, 213

marine vessels, 356

motor vehicle-related employment, 336

natural gas pipeline, 362

personal consumption expenditures, 203

Malaysia, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Manufacturing sector

economic indices, 189, 190, 191, 192, xviii

transportation equipment

employment trends, 213

producer price index, 201

Marine Safety Information System, 434, 469

Marine vessels, 13, 29

accidents, 105, 111, 112, 171, 434

See also Marine vessels, fatalities; Marine vessels, injuries

barge, 40, 41, 356, 359

containerships, 29

data sources, 408, 411-412, 413, 415, 417

dry cargo, 40, 41

employees

injuries and fatalities, 113

in manufacturing and repair, 213, 356

energy consumption, 238, 240, 358, 379, 381, 464

exhaust emissions

carbon monoxide, 295

nitrogen oxides, 296

particulate matter, 298, 299

standards, 290-291

sulfur dioxide, 300

volatile organic compounds, 297

fatalities, 99, 108, 171, 359, 360, 434

among employees, 113

fleet characteristics, 29, 356-357, 413, 415, 417

freighters, 29

government owned, 357

hazardous materials incidents, 111, 112

injuries, 102, 111, 112, 171, 434

long-distance travel characteristics, 51

manufacturing and repair, employment trends, 213, 356

merchant fleet, 15, 29, 357, 415

new, sales/delivery of, 15

number of, 13, 40-41, 356-357, 411-412

number of operators, 4, 356, 408

passenger, 40, 41, 356, 357, 359

petroleum spills, 315

producer price indices, 201

roll-on/roll-off, 29

sail, 360

tankers, 29, 40, 41, 315, 356, 357, 358, 359

towboats, 40, 41

See also Recreational boating; Waterborne transportation

Maritime Administration, 411, 413, 415, 423, 454

Maryland

airports/water ports, 58, 70

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

international trade gateways, 66

roadway congestion, 89, 91

cost values, 92, 94

fuel wasted due to, 264, 266, 267, 269

urban air pollution, 302, 305

urban traffic delays, 86, 88

Massachusetts

airports/water ports, 58, 70

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

international trade gateways, 67

roadway congestion, 89, 90

cost values, 92, 93

fuel wasted due to, 264, 266, 267, 269

urban air pollution, 302, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 86, 87

Medium-duty passenger vehicles, 282

Merchant fleet, U. S., 29, 357, 411-412, 413, 415

Merchant Fleets of the World, 411, 413

Methanol fuel, 245, 285, 461

Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether, 245, 460-461

Metric conversions, 367-399

Metropolitan areas. See Urban areas

Mexico

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

data sources, 424-425

land freight shipments

border crossings, 68

value, 75

land-passenger border crossings, 63

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Michigan

airports/water ports, 58, 71

Canadian border crossings, 62

international trade gateways, 66, 68

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 264, 267

urban air pollution, 302, 303

urban traffic delays, 86

Mileage. See Passengers-miles traveled; System mileage; Vehicle-miles traveled

Mining industries, 189, 190, 191, 192, xviii

Minnesota

airports/water ports, 58, 70, 71

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

Canadian border crossings, 62

international trade gateways, 68

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 303

urban traffic delays, 87

Mississippi

port tonnage, 70

roadway congestion

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265

urban air pollution, 303

urban traffic delays, 87

Missouri, 58

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307

port tonnage, 70

roadway congestion, 89, 90

cost values, 93, 94

fuel wasted due to, 265, 266, 268, 269

urban air pollution, 303, 304

urban traffic delays, 86, 87

Montana

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 307-308

international trade gateways, 67

Monthly Survey of Industrial Electricity Use, 440

Motor Carrier Management Information System, 408

Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act, 408

Motorcycle Industry Council, Inc., 413

Motorcycles

accidents, 105, 135, 338

See also Motorcycles, fatalities; Motorcycles, injuries

data sources, 413

exhaust emissions

federal standards, 285

rates, 292, 294

fatalities, 99, 108, 132, 135, 338

fuel economies, 246, 257, 260, 337-338, 386, 393, 396

helmet use, 143, 144

injuries, 102, 135

See also Motorcycles, fatalities

licensing and registration, 336

as means of transport to work, 50

new, sales/delivery of, 15

number of, 13

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 337, 372

producer price indices, 201

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 246, 336, 337, 369, 386

accident and injury rate, 135

Motor Vehicle Facts, 412

Motor vehicles

accidents, 105, 129, 430-431

alcohol involvement, 133, 139

circumstances and conditions, 141

by posted speed limit, 142

at railroad crossings, 99, 102, 105, 108, 110, 162

See also Motor vehicles, fatalities; Motor vehicles, injuries

age of vehicles, 33

data sources, 410-411, 430-432, 459-460

employment related to, 336

energy consumption, 240, 381

fatalities, 99, 108, 129, 430

alcohol involvement, 133

circumstances and conditions, 141

effectiveness of restraint devices, 144, 431

by highway type, 130-131

number of vehicles in accident, 133

occupant/nonoccupant, 132, 133

by posted speed limit, 142

by vehicle type, 132

fleet characteristics, 20

fuel consumption, 238, 244, 334, 337-338, 379, 385, 414, 459-460

federal government, 253, 391

fuel prices, 199, 200

grade-crossing accidents and injuries, 99, 102, 105, 108, 110, 162

injuries, 102, 129, 135, 136, 138, 162, 430-431

See also Motor vehicles, fatalities

licensing and registration, 336

long-distance travel characteristics, 51-55

as means of transport to work, 50

number of, 410-411

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 337, 372

passenger restraints, 143, 144, 431

personal consumption, 183, 185, 187, 188

expenditures, 203

producer price indices, 201

production, 21, 26-28, 414

employment trends, 213

professional operators, 215, 217

repair expenditures, 203

sales, 15, 21-25, 414

scrapped, 318, 471

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 336-337, 369

accident and injury rate, 129

See also Buses; Highway vehicles; Motorcycles; Passenger cars; Personal-use vehicles; Trucks and trucking

 

N

National Automotive Dealers Association, 414

National Bicycle Dealers Association, 413

National Bridge Inventory Database, 416

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 114, 134, 137, 138, 430-431, 432, 454

National Income and Product Accounts, 436, 438, 449

National Occupant Protection Use Survey, 431

National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems, 415

National Transit Database, 405, 407, 411, 413, 416, 418-419, 422, 432-433, 445, 463, 464

National Transportation Safety Board, 429

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, 418-419, 462

Natural gas

compressed, 238, 240, 245, 250, 379, 381, 389

consumption, 231, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 379, 381, 461

federal government, 253, 391

motor vehicle, 245, 250, 389

international trade, 231

liquefied, 245

merchant fleet, 29

motor vehicle emissions standards, 285

pipelines

accidents, 102, 105, 363, 435

associated fatalities, 99, 108, 363, 435

associated injuries, 102, 363, 435

data sources, 406, 407, 408, 435, 446

economic indices, 362

employment trends, 212, 362

fuel consumption, 363

number of operators, 4, 362

operating revenue, 211

production, 363

system mileage, 3, 9, 362, 367, 406, 407

production, 231

Navigation Data Center, 408, 411, 417

Near Midair Collisions Systems database, 429

Nebraska

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 308

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 304

urban traffic delays, 87

Netherland Antilles

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Netherlands

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Nevada, 58

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 308

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 303

urban traffic delays, 87

New Hampshire, 302

New Jersey

airports, 58

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 308

international trade gateways, 66

port tonnage, 70

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 302, 303, 304

urban traffic delays, 87

New Mexico

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 308

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 264, 267

urban air pollution, 302

urban traffic delays, 86

New York state

airports/water ports, 58, 70

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 308

Canadian border crossings, 62

international trade gateways, 66, 67, 68

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 264, 265, 266, 267, 269

urban air pollution, 302, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 86, 87

Nitrogen oxide emissions

federal standards, 273-291

vehicle rates, 296, 467

in reformulated gasoline engines, 294

by vehicle type, 292-293

Noise exposure

data sources, 470-471

high noise areas, 317

highway noise barrier construction, 316, 470

North Carolina, 58

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 264, 267

urban air pollution, 303, 304

urban traffic delays, 86

North Dakota, 67, 68

 

O

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 414

Occupational Employment Statistics, 448-449

Office of Airline Information, 407, 417, 419, 420, 422, 427, 429, 445, 463

Office of Airport Safety and Standards, 406

Office of Management and Budget, 450

Office of Pipeline Safety, 408, 435, 453

Ohio

airports/water ports, 58, 59, 71

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 308

international trade gateways, 66

roadway congestion, 89

cost values, 92

fuel wasted due to, 264, 267

urban air pollution, 302, 305

urban traffic delays, 86

Oil. See Oil pipelines; Petroleum

Oil Pipeline Research Institute, 405, 407, 446

Oil pipelines

crude, 9, 65, 76, 361, 375, 377

data sources/analysis, 405-406, 407, 421, 422, 425, 446

employment, 361

expenditures, 198

labor productivity, 219

leaks/spills, 315

length of haul, 65, 361, 375, 422

number of operators, 361

operating revenue, 211, 361

revenue per ton-mile, 210

safety performance, 361

system mileage, 3, 9, 361, 367

data sources, 405-406, 407

ton-miles of product, 64, 76, 361, 374, 377, 421

Oklahoma

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265

urban air pollution, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 87

Operations Network database, 426, 427

Oregon

airports/water ports, 58, 70

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 308

international trade gateways, 67

roadway congestion, 89, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 264, 266, 267, 269

urban air pollution, 304

urban traffic delays, 86, 87

 

P

Panama Republic

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Parcels. See Mail and parcel shipments

Particulate emissions, 467-468

federal standards, 273-284, 288

trends, 298, 299

Passenger cars

accidents, 105, 134, 338

See also Passenger cars, fatalities; Passenger cars, injuries

age of vehicles, 33, 415

Canadian border crossings, 62

commuter characteristics, 50

consumer spending, 336

cost of owning and operating, 204, 445

data sources, 414, 415, 430-432, 445

exhaust emissions

federal standards, 273

rates, 292, 293, 294

fatalities, 99, 108, 132, 133, 134, 338

fleet characteristics, 20, 414

fuel consumption, 238, 240, 246, 337, 379, 381, 386

efficiency/intensity, 24, 246, 257, 260, 338, 386, 393, 396, 465

injuries, 102, 134

See also Passenger cars, fatalities

licensing and registration, 336

long-distance trip characteristics, 51

Mexican border crossings, 63

number of, 13

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 337, 372

personal consumption expenditures, 203

person-hours of traffic delay, 86-88

purchase expenditures, 197

safety belt use, 143, 144

use characteristics, 20

work commute, 50

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 246, 336, 337, 369, 386

accident and injury rate, 134

vehicle production, 21

vehicle sales, 15, 21-24, 414

vehicle size, 24

world production, 26

See also Motor vehicles; Personal-use vehicles

Passenger-miles traveled

air, 48, 51, 323, 372, 417

fuel economies, 257, 258, 294, 393

general aviation, 329

revenues per, 209

Amtrak, 48, 354, 372

fuel economies, 257, 263, 393

data sources, 417-419

fuel consumption, 257, 258, 260, 262, 263, 393, 394, 396, 399

highway, 48, 51, 337, 341, 345, 372

fuel economies, 257, 260, 393, 396

revenues per, 209

long-distance trip characteristics, 51-55

passenger revenue, 209

rail, 48, 51, 373

revenues per, 209

transit, 48, 348, 350, 372

fuel economies, 257, 262, 393, 399

revenues per, 209, 348

traveler characteristics, 54-55

trip characteristics, 51-53, 65, 375

by vehicle type, 48, 372

water transport, 51

Pedalcycles. See Bicycles

Pedestrian traffic, 50

Canadian border crossings, 62

fatalities, 99, 108, 132, 133

injuries, 102

Mexican border crossings, 63

Pennsylvania

airports/water ports, 58, 70

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 308-309

international trade gateways, 67

port tonnage, 71

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 266, 268

urban air pollution, 302, 303, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 87

Personal-use vehicles

age of vehicles, 20

Canadian border crossings, 62

consumer spending, 336

fleet characteristics, 20

long-distance travel characteristics, 51

Mexican border crossings, 63

number of, 13

sales, 15

use characteristics, 20

See also Light trucks; Motorcycles; Motor vehicles; Passenger cars

Petroleum

consumption, 231, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 379, 381

federal government, 253, 391

data sources, 425, 457-458

demand, by economic sector, 233, 378, 459

energy demand met by, 232

highway demand, 334

international trade, 231

production, 231, 457-458

spills and leaks, 315, 469-470

transportation

by mode, 76, 425

waterborne, 29, 76

See also Oil pipelines

Petroleum Supply Annual, 425

Philippines

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Pipelines, 72

accidents, 102, 105

associated fatalities, 99, 108

associated injuries, 102

data sources, 408

economic value, 181, 182

employment trends, 212, 450

productivity, 219

wages and salaries, 216, 218

energy consumption, 238, 240, 379, 381

federal expenditures, 226, 455

federal revenues from, 224, 225, 453

gas. See Natural gas, pipelines

hazardous liquid, 4, 99

international shipments, value of, 75

leaks/spills, 315

number of operators, 4

oil. See Oil pipelines

producer price indices, 201

Poland, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Police

air travel-related arrests, 125, 429

fleet characteristics, 20

motor vehicle accident reports, 430

Pollution

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 306-310

noise, 317

petroleum spills, 315

storage tank leaks, 316

urban air quality trends, 302-305

See also Exhaust emissions

Population, U.S., xvii

households, xviii

labor force, xviii

traveler characteristics, 54-55

trends, 194

See also Demographics

Ports

Canadian gateways, 68, 75

data sources, 422-423

federal trust fund, 227

harbor maintenance, 227

Mexican gateways, 68, 75

top tonnage ports, 70-71, 423

top trade gateways, 66-67, 422

waterborne tonnage, 70-71, 357-358

See also Airports

Portugal, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Postal services. See Mail and parcel shipments

Producer price indices, 201, 210, 443-444

Productivity, in transportation sectors, 219, 449-450

Property damage, accidents

in hazardous materials incidents, 112

in railroad accidents, 110, 165

recreational boating accidents, 172

reporting thresholds, 114

transit accidents, 147

waterborne transportation accidents, 171

Public transportation

attendants, 215, 217

use characteristics, 50

See also Transit systems

Puerto Rico

airports/water ports, 58, 71

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 309

urban air pollution, 304, 305

 

R

Race/ethnicity, traveler characteristics, 54

Radioactive materials, 54

Railroad Facts, 403, 411, 416, 419, 421, 464, 465

Railroad Freight Rate Index, 408, 419, 421

Railroads

accidents, 105, 165, 433-434

distribution by type, 163

hazardous material-related, 111-112

by train-miles traveled, 165

transit systems, 148-153

See also Railroads, fatalities; railroads, injuries

Canadian border crossings, 62, 68

car-miles traveled, 45, 251, 354, 369, 390, 419

data sources/analysis, 403, 407, 411, 413, 416, 419, 421, 425, 433-434, 446, 464

economic value, 181, 182

employees

injuries and fatalities, 113, 166, 355

productivity, 219

trends, 212, 213, 215, 353

wages and salaries, 216-218

equipment manufacturing

employment trends, 213

producer price index, 201

exhaust emissions

carbon monoxide, 295

nitrogen oxides, 296

particulate matter, 298, 299

standards, 288-289

sulfur dioxide, 300

volatile organic compounds, 297

fatalities, 99, 108, 165, 355, 433-434

among employees, 113, 166, 355

hazardous material-related, 111

by train-miles traveled, 164, 165

transit systems, 148-153

by type of accident, 163

federal expenditures, 226, 454-455

freight, 421

expenditures, 198

fuel economies, 262, 399

growth, 72

hazardous materials, 77

length of haul, 65, 354, 375

new vehicles, sales/delivery of, 15

number of international gateway crossings, 68

number of vehicles, 13

oil/petroleum products, 76, 377, 425

operating revenues, 353

revenue per ton-mile, 210

ton-miles transported, 64, 354, 374

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 369

fuel consumption, 238, 240, 251, 379, 381, 390, 464

efficiency/intensity, 251, 262, 354, 390, 399, 465

grade crossing accidents and injuries, 99, 102, 105, 108, 110, 162, 355

hazardous materials shipments, 77, 111, 112

heavy rail systems

accidents and injuries, 148-153

age of vehicles, 38

criminal behavior in, 154-158

new vehicles, sales/delivery of, 15

number of vehicles, 13

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 372

system mileage, 3

transit, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 369

injuries, 102, 162, 165, 433-434

among employees, 162, 166

hazardous material-related, 111-112

by train-miles traveled, 164, 165

transit systems, 148-153

by type of accident, 163

See also Railroads, fatalities

light rail

accidents and injuries, 148-153

age of vehicles, 38

average trip length, 351

criminal behavior in, 154-158

economic indices, 347, 348

energy consumption, 351, 352

new vehicles, sales/delivery of, 15

number of vehicles, 13

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 350, 372

system mileage, 3, 367

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 369

locomotive fleet characteristics, 39, 416

long-distance travel characteristics, 51

Mexican border crossings, 63, 68

number of operators, 4, 353, 407-408

number of stations, 8, 407

number of vehicles, 13, 353, 411

operating expenses, 353

operating revenue, 211, 353, 446

passenger expenditures, 197, 353, 446

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 372

personal consumption expenditures, 203

petroleum products transport, 76, 377

producer price indices, 201

system mileage, 3, 353, 367, 403

train-miles traveled, 45, 165, 251, 369, 390, 419

accident and injury rates, 164, 165, 166

transit system

age of vehicles, 38

economic indices, 347, 348

inventory, 349

new vehicles, sales/delivery of, 15

number of vehicles, 13

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 350, 372

stations served, 8, 368

system mileage, 3, 367

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 369

See also Amtrak; Commuter rail transportation

Railroad Ten-Year Trends, 407

Rape, 154

Recreational boating

accidents, 105, 172

alcohol-related incidents, 172

data sources, 412, 434

fatalities, 99, 108, 172, 359, 360

injuries, 102, 172, 359

new vessels, sales/delivery of, 15

number of vessels, 13, 357

accident and injury rates, 172

personal watercraft, 172, 290, 434

Recreational vehicles, 15

Recycling

scrap motor vehicles, 318, 471

waste emissions, 295-301

Rental vehicle fleet, 20

Repairs. See Maintenance and repair, including parts

Research and Special Programs Administration, 114, 408, 435, 453

Revenues, transportation

air carrier, 321

Amtrak, 353, 354

buses, 344

data sources, 445-446

foreign trade gateways, 66-67

freight, 210

by commodity, 73-74

growth, 72

top foreign trade gateways, 66-67

government. See Government, revenues

imports

from Canada, 75

from Mexico, 75

natural gas pipelines, 362

oil pipeline, 210, 211, 361

operating, 211, 321, 353, 356, 446

passenger, 209

rail, 211, 353, 416, 446

transit systems, 347-348

trucking, 211, 340

waterborne transportation, 211, 356

Rhode Island

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 266, 269

urban air pollution, 304

urban traffic delays, 87

R.L. Polk, Co., 414, 415, 471

Roadways

accidents, 334

bridges, 37

condition, 34-36, 37, 333, 415-416

congestion, 427-428

cost values, 92-94

fuel wastage associated with, 264-269, 465-466

index, 89-91

data sources/analysis, 403, 406, 415-416, 427-428

employment, in construction/operations, 213, 333

fatalities, 130-131, 334

functional classification, 332-333

distribution, 7, 8

fatality rate, 130-131

government ownership, 332

government revenues/expenses, 331, 452-453, 454

injuries, 334

noise barrier construction, 316

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 51, 209, 337, 341, 345, 372

petroleum demand, 334

rail crossing accidents and injuries, 99, 102, 105, 108, 110, 162, 166

speed limits, 142

system mileage, 3, 6, 7, 8, 332-333, 367, 368

data sources, 403, 406

urban traffic delays, 86-88

vehicle-miles traveled, 47, 334, 341, 344, 371, 417-418

Robbery, 154

Romania, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Rural areas

bridges, 37

population, xvii

roadways

conditions, 34-35, 37, 333

fatalities, 130-131

government ownership, 332

miles of road, 7, 8, 332, 333, 368

vehicle-miles traveled, 47, 334, 336, 337, 341, 344, 371

Russia

motor vehicle production, 26-28

space launches, 79

 

S

Safety belt use, 143, 144, 431, 432

School buses, 197, 212, 344, 345

Scrap

freight shipments, 74

motor vehicle, 318, 471

Service industry

economic indices, 189, 190, 191, 192, xviii

transportation-related, 201, 212, 216

Sex offenses, 154, 156

Shifts in Petroleum Transportation, 421

Smoke opacity standards, 282-284, 288

Socioeconomic status

household income, 55, xviii

trip/traveler characteristics, 55

South Carolina

international trade gateways, 66

port tonnage, 71

urban air pollution, 302, 303

South Korea, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Space launches, 79, 425-426

Spain

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Speed limits, motor vehicle, 142

State and local government

contributions to GDP, 189-192

DUI/DWI legislation, 140

employment, transportation-related, 213, 333, 447-448

expenditures, transportation-related, 184, 186, 187, 188, 454, 455

revenues, transportation-related, 223, 450-451, 452-453

highway, 331

licensing and registration, 331, 336

road ownership, 332

transit subsidies, 347

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 439

Statistical Handbook of Aviation, 420

Storage tank leaks, 316

Substance abuse. See Alcohol-related incidents; Drug abuse

Sulfur dioxide emissions, 300, 467, 468

Supplement to Producer Price Indexes, 443

Surface Transportation Board, 403, 407-408, 416, 421, 446, 464, 465

Survey of Current Business, 436, 449, 451

Sweden, motor vehicle production, 26-28

Switzerland

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

System mileage

Amtrak, 3, 353, 367

data sources/analysis, 403-406

gas pipeline, 3, 9, 362, 367

highway/roadway, 3, 6, 7, 8, 332-333, 367

navigable channels, 3, 356, 367

oil pipeline, 3, 9, 361, 367

rail, 3, 353, 367

transit, 3, 367

 

T

Taiwan, 60, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Tanker ships, 29, 40, 41, 76, 315, 356, 357, 358, 359, 377

Taxes

data sources, 452-453

fuel, 200, 224, 225, 331, 462

natural gas pipeline, 362

transportation-related revenues, 223-225, 340

See also Government, revenues, transportation-related

Taxis

consumer spending, 336

employment trends, 212, 215

fleet characteristics, 20

as means of transport to work, 50

personal consumption expenditures, 203

See also Demand responsive transit

Tennessee

airports/water ports, 58, 71

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 309

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 303, 304

urban traffic delays, 87

Texas

airports/water ports, 58, 59, 70

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 309

international trade gateways, 66, 67, 68

Mexican border crossings, 63

port tonnage, 71

roadway congestion, 89, 90

cost values, 92, 93

fuel wasted due to, 264, 265, 266, 267, 269

urban air pollution, 302, 303, 305

urban traffic delays, 86, 87

Texas Transportation Institute, 427, 428, 465-466

Theft, 155

Tires, 203, 204, 336

Tolls, 203

Tonnage/ton-miles

air, 56, 64, 374

data sources, 420

hazardous materials transport, 77

revenues, 210

all modes, 64

growth, 72

hazardous materials transport, 77

petroleum, 76, 377

revenues, 210

by commodity, 73-74

data sources, 420-421, 423-424

freight revenue tons, 56, 354

freight ton-miles, 64, 374

revenue per ton-mile, 210

growth, 72

hazardous material transport, 77, 78

mail, 56, 72

national trends, 194

petroleum products, 64, 76, 374, 377

pipelines, 64, 374

data sources, 420

petroleum, 64, 76, 374, 377

revenues, 210

rail, 64, 354, 374

data sources, 420

growth, 72

hazardous materials transport, 77

petroleum, 76, 377

revenues, 210

revenues, 210

truck, 64, 341, 374

data sources, 420

growth, 72

hazardous materials transport, 77

petroleum, 76, 377

revenues, 210

waterborne, 64, 69, 357-358, 374, 376

data sources, 420

growth, 72

hazardous materials transport, 77

petroleum, 76, 377

revenues, 210

top U.S. ports, 70-71

Towboats/tugboats, 40, 41, 357, 359

Toxic material shipments, 78

Traffic Monitoring Guide, 417-418

Trains. See Railroads

Transborder Surface Freight Data, 424

Transit vehicles/systems

accidents/incidents, 105, 147-153, 352, 432-433

age of vehicles, 38, 416

average trip length, 351

data sources/analysis, 405, 411, 413, 416, 418-419, 432-433, 445-446, 464

demand responsive, 197

accidents and injuries, 148-153

criminal behavior in, 154-158

economic indices, 347, 348

economic indices, 181, 182, 211, 347-348, 445-446

employment trends, 212, 349

wages and salaries, 216-218

energy consumption, 238, 240, 250, 351-352, 379, 381, 389

efficiency/intensity, 257, 262, 393, 399, 465

fatalities, 99, 108, 147-153, 345, 352, 432-433

government expenditures, 226, 347, 454

government revenues, 453

injuries, 102, 147-153, 352, 432-433

new vehicles, sales/delivery of, 15

number of systems, 349

number of vehicles, 13, 349, 411

operating expenses, 347-348

operating revenue, 211, 347, 445-446

passenger fare trends, 205, 348, 445-446

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 350, 372

personal consumption expenditures, 197, 203, 347, 348

system mileage, 3, 367, 405

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 350, 369, 418-419

accident and injury rate, 147, 149-150, 152-153

vehicle speed, 351

See also specific mode

Transportation Energy Data Book, 414

Transportation in America, 405, 407, 420, 421

Transport Economics, 421

Travel, long-distance. See Long-distance travel

Travel agencies, 201

Trespassing, 157, 162, 355

Trolley buses, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352

age of vehicles, 38

new vehicles, sales/delivery of, 15

number of, 13

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 372

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 369

Truck Inventory and Use Survey, 418

Trucks and trucking

accidents, 105, 136, 342

See also Trucks and trucking, fatalities; Trucks and trucking, injuries

age of vehicles, 33, 415

commercial vehicle production, 21

data sources/analysis, 408, 410-411, 414, 415, 420, 421, 425, 446

economic indices, 181, 182, 211, 340

employment trends, 212, 340

productivity, 219

professional operators, 215, 217

wages and salaries, 216-218

energy consumption, 240, 381

exhaust emissions

federal standards, 283-284

rates, 292, 293, 294

fatalities, 99, 108, 132, 136, 342

fleet characteristics, 20

freight transportation, 420

domestic length of haul, 65, 375

expenditures, 198

growth, 72

hazardous materials, 77

intercity ton-miles, 64, 374

number of international gateway crossings, 68

oil/petroleum products, 76, 377, 425

revenue per ton-mile, 210

fuel consumption, 238, 248, 249, 341, 379, 388

efficiency/intensity, 25, 248, 249, 341, 388

hazardous materials shipments, 77

injuries, 102, 136

See also Trucks and trucking, fatalities

interstate carriers, number of, 4, 408

labor productivity, 219

length of haul, 342

number of, 13, 410-411

number of commercial establishments, 340

oil transport, 76, 377

operating revenue, 211

passenger-miles traveled, 48, 341, 372

personal consumption expenditures, 203

producer price indices, 201

sales, 15, 25

taxes paid, 340

use characteristics, 20

vehicle-miles traveled, 45, 248, 249, 341, 342, 369, 388

accident and injury rate, 136

See also Light trucks

Trust funds, federal, 224, 225, 227, 331, 452, 453

Tugboats, 40, 41, 357, 359

Turkey, motor vehicle production, 26-28

 

U

Uniform Statistical Report, 406, 407

United Kingdom

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

motor vehicle production, 26-28

Urban areas

air pollution trends, 302-305, 468

bridges, condition of, 37

population distribution, xvii

population trends, xvii

roadways

conditions, 35-36, 333

congestion, 89-91, 264-269, 427-428, 466

fatalities, 130-131

government ownership, 332

miles of road, 7, 8, 332, 333

traffic delays, 86-88

vehicle-miles traveled, 47, 334, 336, 337, 341, 344, 371

See also specific state

Urban Roadway Congestion Annual Report, 427

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 405, 408, 411, 417, 421, 423, 425, 446, 454

U.S. Coast Guard, 114, 408, 411, 412, 434, 469, 470

search and rescue efforts, 173, 434

U.S. Customs Service, 423, 425

U.S. Department of Commerce, 412, 414, 420, 422, 424, 436, 448, 449

U.S. Department of Defense, 422, 423, 463, 464-465

U.S. Department of Energy, 405, 407, 422, 425, 439, 440, 457, 459, 462, 464, 468

U.S. Department of Labor, 443, 447

U.S. Department of the Interior, 408, 439

U.S. Department of Transportation, 405, 407, 417, 426, 447-448, 449-450, 453

See also specific administration, bureau, or office

U.S. Department of Treasury, 422, 424

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 467, 468, 470

Utah, 58

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 309

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 266, 269

urban air pollution, 304

urban traffic delays, 87

Utility vehicles, 20

 

V

Vacation and pleasure travel, trip characteristics, 52-53

Vandalism, 156

Vans/vanpools, 25, 38

accidents and injuries, 148-153

average trip length, 351

vehicle speed, 351

Vehicle-miles traveled

air transport, 45, 369, 417

average length of haul, 65, 375

fuel consumption, 243, 384

general aviation, 329, 417

revenue miles, 322

safety performance, 117, 119

Amtrak, 354

data sources, 417-419

fuel consumption, 243, 244, 246, 248-252, 260, 262, 384-389, 399

highway, 45, 334, 336-337, 341, 342, 344, 345, 369

average length of haul, 65, 375

exhaust emission rates, 292-294

exhaust emission standards, 273-282

fuel consumption, 244, 246, 248, 249, 260, 385-389

by roadway type, 47, 336-337, 371

safety performance, 129, 134, 135, 136, 138, 338, 342

long-distance personal-use, 51-55

rail, 45, 354, 369

average length of haul, 65, 375

fuel consumption, 251, 262, 390, 399

safety performance, 164, 165, 166

transit, 350

by roadway type, 47, 336-337, 371

transit, 45, 350, 369, 418-419

fuel consumption, 250

safety performance, 147

by vehicle type, 45, 369

water vessels, 65, 375

Vehicle trips, long-distance personal-use, 51-55

Venezuela

air passenger arrivals from, 60

air passenger departures to, 61

Vermont, 67

Virginia

international trade gateways, 66

port tonnage, 70, 71

roadway congestion, 90, 91

cost values, 93, 94

fuel wasted due to, 265, 266, 268, 269

urban air pollution, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 87

Volatile organic compounds, 297, 467

 

W

Wages and salaries, 216-218

Wall Street Journal, 414

Wards Automotive Reports, 414

Wards Motor Vehicle Facts & Figures, 414

Washington, D.C. See District of Columbia

Washington state

airports/water ports, 58, 70, 71

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 309

Canadian border crossings, 62

international trade gateways, 66, 67

roadway congestion, 90, 91

cost values, 93, 94

fuel wasted due to, 266, 269

urban air pollution, 304, 305

urban traffic delays, 87, 88

Waste. See Exhaust emissions; Recycling; Scrap

Waterborne Commerce of the United States, 421, 423, 425

Waterborne transportation

accidents, 105, 111, 112, 171

age of vessels, 40-41

Coast Guard search and rescue efforts, 173

coastwise shipping, 64, 65, 69, 374, 375, 376

data sources/analysis, 405, 408, 411-412, 413, 417, 421-422, 425, 434, 446, 464

domestic freight

length of haul, 65, 375

short tons, 69, 376

ton-miles, 64, 374

economic value, 181, 182

employment trends, 212, 215, 356

wages and salaries, 216-218

federal expenditures, 226, 454

federal revenues from, 224, 225, 453

freight transportation, 421

capacity, 358

expenditures, 198

fleet characteristics/performance, 356, 357, 358, 359

length of haul, 358

revenues, 356

tonnage/ton-miles, 357-358

gasoline demand, 242, 383

growth, 72

hazardous materials, 77

injuries, 102, 171, 359

intraport shipping, 64, 65, 69, 357, 374, 375, 376

lakewise shipping, 64, 65, 357, 358, 374, 375

merchant fleet characteristics, 29

oil/petroleum products, 76, 377, 425

operating revenue, 211, 356

passenger expenditures, 197

passenger revenues, 356

passenger trip characteristics, 51

petroleum products, 76, 377

producer price indices, 201

safety data, 102, 105, 111, 112, 171, 359, 434

tonnage by port, 70-71

See also Marine vessels; Recreational boating

Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States, 408, 411, 417

Water Pollution Control Act, 434

Waterways

data sources, 405

navigable channel miles, 3, 356, 367

petroleum spills, 315, 469-470

Weapons detected at airports, 125

Weather conditions

air transit delays and, 85

at time of motor vehicle accidents, 141

West Virginia

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 309

port tonnage, 70

urban air pollution, 305

Wholesale/retail trade

aircraft sales, 15, 412

economic indices, 189, 190, 191, 192, xviii

employment trends in transportation industries, 213

passenger car sales, 22-24, 412, 414

Wisconsin

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 309

port tonnage, 70

roadway congestion, 90

cost values, 93

fuel wasted due to, 265, 268

urban air pollution, 303

urban traffic delays, 87

World Bank, 416

Wyoming

areas not meeting national air quality standards, 309

 

Y

Yugoslavia, motor vehicle production, 26-28