Table 1-51: Crude Oil and Petroluem Products Transported in the United States by Mode

Table 1-51: Crude Oil and Petroluem Products Transported in the United States by Mode

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  1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Crude Oil                  
Ton-miles (billions)                  
Pipelinesa 288.0 362.6 334.4 334.8 335.9 338.3 337.4 334.1 321.1
Water carriers 40.6 c387.4 449.2 291.2 247.7 202.4 147.3 117.9 100.0
Motor carriersb 1.4 2.5 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.4
Railroads 1.5 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.5
Total 331.5 753.0 786.2 628.2 586.0 543.2 486.9 454.1 423.0
% of total                  
Pipelinesa 86.9 48.2 42.5 53.3 57.3 62.3 69.3 73.6 75.9
Water carriers 12.2 51.4 57.2 46.4 42.3 37.3 30.3 26.0 23.6
Motor carriersb 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Railroads 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Refined Petroleum Products                  
Ton-miles (billions)                  
Pipelinesa 219.0 225.6 229.9 249.3 265.2 280.9 279.1 285.7 296.6
Water carriers 257.4 230.4 141.2 157.8 153.2 154.1 148.3 147.1 147.5
Motor carriersb 26.2 24.3 26.9 28.2 24.6 28.0 26.0 26.7 27.6
Railroads 12.6 12.0 11.3 13.3 15.9 16.0 16.2 16.2 18.2
Total 515.2 492.3 409.3 448.6 458.9 479.0 469.6 475.7 489.9
% of total                  
Pipelinesa 66.1 30.0 29.2 39.7 45.3 51.7 57.3 62.9 60.5
Water carriers 77.6 30.6 18.0 25.1 26.1 28.4 30.5 31.0 30.1
Motor carriersb 7.9 5.0 3.4 4.5 5.3 5.9 5.3 5.9 5.6
Railroads 3.8 1.6 2.7 2.1 2.7 2.9 3.5 3.4 3.7
Combined Crude and Petroleum Products                  
Ton-miles (billions)                  
Pipelinesa 507.0 588.2 564.3 584.1 601.1 619.2 616.5 619.8 617.7
Water carriers 298.0 c617.8 590.4 449.0 400.9 356.5 295.6 265.0 247.5
Motor carriersb 27.6 26.8 28.7 29.7 26.3 29.7 27.7 28.3 29.0
Railroads 14.1 12.5 12.1 14.0 16.6 16.8 16.7 16.7 18.7
Total 846.7 1,245.3 1,195.5 1,076.8 1,044.9 1,022.2 956.5 929.8 912.9
% of total                  
Pipelinesa 59.9 47.2 47.2 54.2 57.5 60.6 64.5 66.7 67.7
Water carriers 35.2 49.6 49.4 41.7 38.4 34.9 30.9 28.5 27.1
Motor carriersb 3.3 2.2 2.4 2.8 2.5 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.2
Railroads 1.7 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.8 2.1

a The amount carried by pipeline is based on ton-miles of crude and petroleum products transported through federally regulated pipelines (84%), plus estimated ton-miles of crude and petroleum products transported through nonfederally regulated pipelines (16%).

b The amount carried by motor carriers is estimated.

c Reflects the entrance between 1975 and 1980 of the Alaska pipeline, moving crude petroluem for water transportation to U.S. refineries.

SOURCES: 1975: Association of Oil Pipe Lines, Shifts in Petroleum Transportation (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 6.

1980-99: Ibid., Shifts in Petroleum Transportation (Washington, DC: Annual issues).