Table 2-1: Transportation Fatalities by Mode

Table 2-1: Transportation Fatalities by Mode

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
TOTAL fatalities U U U U U U R47,347 R44,320 R42,032 R42,810 R43,553 R44,527 R44,798 R44,444 R43,909 R44,036 44,190
Air                                  
U.S. air carriera 499 261 146 124 1 526 39 j50 33 1 239 168 380 8 1 12 92
Commuter carrierb N N N 28 37 37 R6 j77 21 24 25 9 14 46 0 12 5
On-demand air taxic N N N 69 105 76 51 78 68 42 63 52 63 39 45 38 71
General aviationd 787 1,029 1,310 1,252 1,239 956 767 R799 R867 R740 730 R735 R636 R631 624 R619 594
Highway                                  
Passenger car occupants N N N 25,929 27,449 23,212 24,092 22,385 21,387 21,566 21,997 22,423 22,505 22,199 21,194 R20,862 20,492
Motorcyclists 790 1,650 2,280 3,189 5,144 4,564 3,244 2,806 2,395 2,449 2,320 2,227 2,161 2,116 2,294 R2,483 2,862
Truck occupantse                                  
 Light N N N 4,856 7,486 6,689 8,601 8,391 8,098 8,511 8,904 9,568 9,932 10,249 10,705 11,265 11,418
 Large N N N 961 1,262 977 705 661 585 605 670 648 621 723 742 759 741
Bus occupants N N N 53 46 57 32 31 28 18 18 33 21 18 38 R59 22
Pedestrians 7,210 7,990 8,950 7,516 8,070 6,808 6,482 5,801 5,549 5,649 5,489 5,584 5,449 5,321 5,228 R4,939 4,739
Pedalcyclists 490 690 760 1,003 965 890 859 843 723 816 802 833 765 814 760 R754 690
Otherf 27,909 36,759 40,637 1,018 669 628 584 590 485 536 516 501 609 573 540 R596 857
Total highway fatalities 36,399 47,089 52,627 44,525 51,091 43,825 44,599 41,508 39,250 40,150 40,716 41,817 k42,065 42,013 41,501 R41,717 41,821
Railroadg                                  
Highway-rail grade crossing 1,421 1,610 1,440 917 833 582 698 608 579 626 615 579 488 461 431 402 425
Railroad 924 923 785 575 584 454 599 586 591 653 611 567 551 602 577 530 512
Transith N N N N N N 339 300 273 281 320 274 264 275 286 299 295
Waterbornei                                  
Vessel-relatedl N N 178 243 206 131 85 30 96 R114 R78 R51 R52 R50 R71 R57 32
Not related to vessel casualtiesl N N 420 330 281 130 101 56 R94 R95 R101 R95 R95 R88 R95 R86 87
Recreational boating 739 1,360 1,418 1,466 1,360 1,116 865 924 816 800 784 829 709 821 815 734 701
Pipeline       15 19 33 9 14 15 17 22 21 53 10 20 25 38
Hazardous liquid pipeline N N 4 7 4 5 3 0 5 0 1 3 5 0 2 4 1
Gas pipeline N N 26 8 15 28 6 14 10 17 21 18 48 10 R18 R21 37

KEY: N = data do not exist; P = preliminary; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a Carriers operating under 14 CFR 121, all scheduled and nonscheduled service. Since Mar. 20, 1997, 14 CFR 121 include aircraft with 10 or more seats that formerly operated under 14 CFR 135. This change makes it difficult to compare pre 1997 data for 14 CFR 121 and 14 CFR 135 with more recent data.

b All scheduled service operating under 14 CFR 135 (commuter air carriers). Before Mar. 20, 1997, 14 CFR 135 applied to aircraft with 30 or fewer seats. Since Mar. 20, 1997, 14 CFR 135 includes only aircraft with fewer than 10 seats. This change makes it difficult to compare pre 1997 data for 14 CFR 121 and 14 CFR 135 with more recent data.

c Nonscheduled service operating under 14 CFR 135 (on-demand air taxis).

d All operations other than those operating under 14 CFR 121 and 14 CFR 135.

e Large trucks are defined as trucks over 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating, including single-unit trucks and truck tractors. Light trucks are defined as trucks of 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating or less, including pickups, vans, truck-based stationwagons, and utility vehicles.

f Includes occupants of other vehicle types and other nonmotorists. For 1960-70, the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration did not break out fatality data to the same level of detail as in later years, so fatalities for those years also include occupants of passenger cars, trucks, and buses.

g Includes Amtrak. Highway-rail grade crossing fatalities data for 1970 and before is not comparable with data after 1970 due to change in reporting system. Fatalities include those resulting from train accidents, train incidents, and nontrain incidents. Highway-rail grade crossing fatalities are counted under highway, except train occupants.

h Fatalities include those resulting from all reportable incidents, not just from accidents.

i Vessel-related casualties include those involving damage to vessels such as collisions or groundings. Fatalties not related to vessel casualties include deaths from falling overboard or from accidents involving onboard equipment.

j U.S. air carrier figure does not include 12 persons killed aboard a commuter aircraft when it and a US Air airliner collided; commuter air carrier figure does not include 22 persons killed aboard a US Air airliner when it and a commuter aircraft collided.

k Includes 2 fatalities that have not been assigned to a specific vehicle type.

l 1992-2000 data come from the Marine Safety Management Information System. Data for prior years may not be directly comparable.

NOTES:

Numbers may not add to totals because some fatalities are counted in more than one mode. To avoid double counting, the following adjustments have been made: most (not all) highway-rail grade-crossing fatalities have not been added because most (not all) such fatalities involve motor vehicles and, thus, are already included in highway fatalities; for transit, all commuter rail fatalities and motor-bus, trolley-bus, demand-responsive and van-pool fatalities arising from accidents have been subtracted because they are counted as railroad, highway, or highway-rail grade-crossing fatalities. The reader cannot reproduce the total fatalities in this table by simply leaving out the number of highway-rail grade-crossing fatalitites in the sum and subtracting the above transit submodes, because in so doing, grade-crossing fatalities not involving motor vehicles would be left out (see table 2-35 on rail). An example of such a fatality is a bicyclist hit by a train at a grade crossing.

Caution must be exercised in comparing fatalities across modes because significantly different definitions are used. In particular, rail and transit fatalities include incident-related (as distinct from accident-related) fatalities, such as fatalities from falls in transit stations or railroad employee fatalities from a fire in a workshed. Equivalent fatalities for the air and highway modes (fatalities at airports not caused by moving aircraft or fatalities from accidents in automobile repair shops) are not counted toward the totals for these modes. Thus, fatalities not necessarily directly related to in service transportation are counted for the transit and rail modes, potentially overstating the risk for these modes.

SOURCES:

Air:

1960: National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1967 (Washington, DC: December 1968).

1965-70: Ibid., Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1975, NTSB/ARC-77/1 (Washington, DC: January 1977).

1975: Ibid., Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1983, NTSB/ARC-87/01 (Washington, DC: February 1987), table 18.

1980: Ibid., Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1981, NTSB/ARC-85/01 (Washington, DC: February 1985), tables 2 and 16.

1985-2000: Ibid., Internet site www.ntsb.gov/aviation, table 5 as of May 7, 2002.

Commuter:

1975-80: National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1980, NTSB/ARC-83/01 (Washington, DC: January 1983), tables 26 and 40.

1985-2000: Ibid., Internet site www.ntsb.gov/aviation, table 9 as of May 7, 2002.

On-demand air taxi:

1975-80: National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1981, NTSB/ARC-85/01 (Washington, DC: February 1985), table 61.

1985-2000: Ibid., Internet site www.ntsb.gov/aviation, table 9 as of May 7, 2002.

General aviation:

1960-70: National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. General Aviation, Calendar Year 1970, NTSB/ARG-74/1 (Washington, DC: April 1974), table 117.

1975-80: Ibid., Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: General Aviation, Calendar Year 1985, NTSB/ARG-87/03 (Washington, DC: October 1987), table 21.

1985-2000: Ibid., Internet site www.ntsb.gov/aviation, table 10 as of May 7, 2002.

Highway:

1960-65: Estimated by U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from data supplied by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, and individual state accident reports (adjusted to 30-day deaths). Fatalities data prior to 1975 have been adjusted to reflect the Fatality Analysis Reporting System's definition of a fatal crash as one that involves a motor vehicle on a trafficway that results in the death of a vehicle occupant or a nonmotorist within 30 days of the crash.

1970-2000: Ibid., Traffic Safety Facts 1999, DOT HS 809 100 (Washington, DC: December 2000), table 4, and personal communication, Nov. 28, 2001.

Rail:

Highway-rail grade crossing:

1960-70: National Safety Council, Accident Facts, 1974 (Washington, DC: 1974).

1975-80: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Policy and Program Development, personal communication.

1985-90: Ibid., Rail-Highway Crossing Accident/Incident and Inventory Bulletin (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table S.

1991-2000: Ibid., Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2000 (Washington, DC: July 2001), tables 1-1 and 8-13.

Railroad:

1960-65: National Safety Council, Accident Facts, 1974 (Washington, DC: 1974).

1970-90: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Highway-Rail Crossing Accident/Incident and Inventory Bulletin (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 7.

1991-2000: Ibid., Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2000 (Washington, DC: July 2001), tables 1-1 and 8-13.

Transit:

1990-99: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, Safety Management Information Statistics 1999 (Washington, DC: 2001), p. 41.

2000: U.S Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, personal communications, Mar. 19, 2002.

Water:

Vessel- and nonvessel-related:

1970-91: U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Investigations and Analysis, Compliance Analysis Division, (G-MOA-2), personal communication, Apr. 13, 1999.

1992-2000: U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Data Administration Division (G-MRI-1), personal communication, Dec. 12, 2001.

Recreational boating:

1960-2000: Ibid., Office of Boating Safety, Boating Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues).

Hazarous liquid and gas pipeline:

1970-2000: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Office of Pipeline Safety, personal communication and Internet site http://ops.dot.gov as of July 24, 2001.