Table 4-46: Estimated National Emissions of Lead

Table 4-46: Estimated National Emissions of Lead

(Thousand short tons)

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  1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
TOTAL all sources 220.87 159.66 74.15 22.89 14.76 7.68 7.05 5.47 4.98 4.17 3.81 3.92 4.05 3.93 R4.08 R4.14 R4.06 4.20
Transportation                                    
Highway vehicles 171.96 130.21 60.50 18.05 10.25 3.32 2.57 0.98 0.42 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Aircraft 1.40 1.12 0.89 0.69 0.81 0.63 0.67 0.66 0.62 0.57 0.57 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.52
Total transportation 173.36 131.33 61.39 18.74 11.06 3.95 3.24 1.64 1.04 0.59 0.59 0.55 0.55 0.56 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.54
Fuel combustion 10.62 10.35 4.30 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.49 0.50 R0.50 0.49 0.49 R0.49 R0.49 0.50
Industrial processesa 26.36 11.38 3.94 2.53 2.13 2.16 2.27 2.40 2.48 2.27 1.92 2.05 2.18 2.27 2.27 2.32 R2.24 2.35
Waste disposal and recycling 2.20 1.60 1.21 0.87 0.84 0.84 0.82 0.77 0.80 0.81 0.81 0.83 0.83 0.60 R0.79 R0.80 R0.81 0.81
Miscellaneousb 8.34 5.01 3.32 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.17 0.16 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Total nontransportation 47.52 28.34 12.77 4.15 3.71 3.73 3.81 3.85 3.94 3.58 3.22 R3.37 3.50 R3.37 R3.55 R3.61 R3.54 3.66

KEY: R = Revised.

a Industrial processes comprise chemical and allied product manufacturing, metals processing, and other industrial processes.

b Miscellaneous comprises other nonroad gasoline, engines and vehicles that could not be accurately allocated to specific source categories.

NOTES: Total lead emissions decreased sharply from 1970 to 1995 as a result of regulatory actions. The lead content of leaded gasoline was reduced dramatically in 1985. In addition, unleaded gasoline was introduced in 1975 for use in automobiles equipped with catalytic control devices. By 1995, unleaded gasoline sales accounted for 99% of the gasoline market.

The methodologies used to estimate emissions constantly evolve and undergo major changes. Improved methods are often used to revise estimates for previous years. Therefore, some estimates in this table may not match estimates produced in previous reports, and some trends may not be consistent across years in which major changes in methodology have occurred.

Numbers may not add to totals due to rounding.

SOURCES: 1970-85, 1989-99: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report: 1999 (EPA-454/R-01-004) (Research Triangle Park, NC: March 2001), table A-3; available at Internet website http://www.epa.gov/oar/aqtrnd99/toc.html as of Sept. 5, 2001.

1988: Ibid, National Air Pollutant Emission Trends: 1900-1998 (EPA-454/R-00-002) (Research Triangle Park, NC: March 2000), table A-7; available at Internet website http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends/trends98/browse.html as of Sept. 5, 2001.

1986-87: Ibid, National Emission Trends Source Reports Database, available at Internet website www.epa.gov/air/data/nettier.html as of Sept. 5, 2001.