Highway Profile

Highway Profile

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Financial 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Government receipts ($ millions)                      
Total federal 2,771 6,160 9,949 14,576 17,854 19,851 23,196 21,648 24,509 26,008 31,050
Highway trust funda j2,531 j5,464 j7,615 j13,380 j16,582 k18,835 k22,036 k20,500 k23,396 k25,085 k29,701
Other 240 696 2,334 1,196 1,272 1,016 1,160 1,148 1,113 923 1,349
State and local total                      
State and D.C. 6,055 11,737 19,666 40,026 47,699 50,064 52,808 58,087 58,806 63,274 66,441
Local 2,367 3,866 10,219 20,842 25,759 26,432 26,767 27,686 28,266 32,368 31,254
Total 11,193 21,763 39,834 75,444 91,312 96,347 102,771 107,421 111,581 121,650 128,745
Government expenditures ($ millions)                      
Total federal 197 425 874 664 1,306 1,402 1,598 1,315 R1,375 1,428 2,277
Highway trust funda 27 83 315 358 965 1,092 1,384 1,103 R1,170 1,249 1,881
Otherb 170 342 559 306 341 310 214 212 R205 179 396
State and local total                      
State and D.C. 7,125 14,100 25,936 45,609 55,569 56,981 59,709 61,534 65,507 71,415 77,899
Local 3,435 6,304 14,953 29,135 33,317 35,095 36,775 39,104 41,093 43,168 47,283
Total 10,757 20,829 41,763 75,408 90,192 93,478 98,082 101,953 R107,975 116,011 127,459
State highway user tax revenuesc ($ millions)                      
Motor fuel tax l3,374 l6,433 l9,485 l19,658 l25,860 l26,881 m27,555 m28,477 m29,803 m30,753 m31,291
Other motor fuel receiptsd 22 44 92 220 101 108 63 55 58 134 179
Motor vehicle registration fees n1,514 n2,873 n5,173 n10,257 n12,388 n11,942 o13,234 o13,631 o14,552 o14,882 o13,704
Other motor vehicle feese 235 577 1,490 3,353 4,505 4,416 4,689 4,704 5,068 5,350 5,696
Motor carrier taxesf 110 176 323 695 875 770 726 729 861 740 784
Miscellaneous fees 68 181 615 1,761 2,708 3,307 3,489 3,785 4,165 4,410 4,800
Total 5,323 10,284 17,177 35,944 46,437 47,424 49,756 51,381 54,507 56,269 56,454

Inventory 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Rural/urban mileage by ownership                      
Rural mileage                      
Under state control p658,896 p707,002 q750,479 q702,486 q690,372 q690,924 r691,156 r692,767 r660,834 r660,682 r661,798
Under federal controlg 111,912 187,696 246,130 178,188 173,650 170,568 168,938 167,369 118,369 116,846 116,698
Under local control 2,345,317 2,274,714 2,234,327 2,241,608 2,228,788 2,231,029 2,232,793 2,248,357 2,285,447 2,293,653 2,305,504
County roads 1,742,404 1,732,981 1,542,984 1,616,634 1,624,982 1,626,927 1,627,639 1,642,468 1,647,025 1,649,291 1,656,906
Town, township and municipal roadsh 538,651 510,174 458,231 437,460 423,908 424,529 426,170 426,433 426,340 590,206 592,623
Other local roadsh 64,262 31,559 233,112 187,514 179,898 179,573 178,984 179,456 212,082 54,156 55,975
Total rural mileage 3,116,125 3,169,412 3,230,936 3,122,282 3,092,810 3,092,520 3,092,887 3,108,493 3,064,650 3,071,181 3,084,000
Urban mileage                      
Under state control 50,158 74,103 97,287 95,778 109,947 111,766 111,924 112,226 110,017 109,956 110,195
Under federal controlg N N 1,495 1,024 1,484 1,509 1,470 1,464 1,485 1,503 1,484
Under local control N N 530,119 647,842 702,354 706,431 713,371 722,418 730,152 734,605 740,562
County roads N N 71,357 95,929 115,388 117,518 117,181 117,487 117,016 117,105 116,918
Town and township roadsh N N 37,583 42,752 74,630 60,561 60,926 74,402 75,195 605,255 611,473
Other local roadsh 379,410 486,567 421,179 509,161 512,336 528,352 535,264 530,529 537,941 12,245 12,171
Total urban mileage 429,568 560,670 628,901 744,644 813,785 819,706 826,765 836,108 841,654 846,064 852,241
Total rural and urban mileage 3,545,693 3,730,082 3,859,837 3,866,926 3,906,595 3,912,226 3,919,652 3,945,872 3,906,290 3,917,240 3,936,229
Rural/urban mileage by functional system                      
Rural mileage                      
Interstate N N s31,905 R,s33,547 s32,457 s32,580 t32,820 t32,817 t32,813 t32,974 t33,048
Other principal arterial N N 82,569 83,802 97,175 97,948 98,131 98,257 98,852 98,856 98,911
Minor arterial N N 149,057 144,774 138,120 137,151 137,359 137,497 137,308 137,463 137,574
Major collector N N 439,000 436,352 431,115 431,712 432,117 432,714 432,408 432,954 433,121
Minor collector N N 299,613 293,922 282,011 274,081 273,198 272,362 272,140 271,690 271,815
Local N N 2,228,792 2,129,885 2,111,932 2,119,048 2,119,262 2,135,485 2,091,127 2,097,244 2,109,519
Total rural mileage u3,116,125 u3,169,412 3,230,936 3,122,282 3,092,810 3,092,520 3,092,887 3,109,132 3,064,648 3,071,181 3,083,988
Urban mileage                      
Interstate N N 9,215 11,527 13,126 13,164 13,217 13,247 13,312 13,343 13,379
Other freeways and expressways N N 6,774 7,668 8,994 8,970 9,027 9,063 9,127 9,125 9,140
Other principal arterial N N 44,155 51,968 53,110 52,796 52,983 53,223 53,132 53,206 53,312
Minor arterial N N 66,377 74,659 87,857 88,510 89,020 89,195 89,496 89,399 89,789
Collector N N 68,387 78,254 86,089 87,331 87,790 88,049 88,071 88,008 88,200
Local N N 433,993 520,568 564,609 568,935 574,728 583,973 588,504 592,978 598,421
Total urban mileage 429,568 560,670 628,901 744,644 813,785 819,706 826,765 836,740 841,642 846,059 852,541
Total rural and urban mileage 3,545,693 3,730,082 3,859,837 3,866,926 3,906,595 3,912,226 3,919,652 3,945,872 3,906,290 3,917,240 3,936,229
U.S. roads and streets by surface                      
Paved mileage                      
Rural 919,082 1,188,080 u1,490,050 u1,550,283 u1,561,649 u1,591,334 v1,582,166 v1,605,804 v1,612,251 v1,641,877 v1,684,922
Urban 311,387 470,341 582,642 704,539 780,530 786,934 798,484 804,131 808,093 809,549 819,572
Total 1,230,469 1,658,421 2,072,692 2,254,822 2,342,179 2,378,268 2,380,650 2,409,935 2,420,344 2,451,426 2,504,494
Percent paved 34.7 44.5 53.7 58.3 60.0 60.8 60.5 60.9 61.3 62.4 63.4
Unpaved mileage                      
Rural u2,197,043 u1,981,332 u1,740,886 u1,571,999 u1,531,161 u1,501,186 v1,518,310 v1,510,330 v1,490,488 v1,436,969 v1,406,508
Urban 118,181 90,329 46,259 40,105 33,255 32,772 35,227 38,019 38,061 42,008 39,040
Total 2,315,224 2,071,661 1,787,145 1,612,104 1,564,416 1,533,958 1,553,537 1,548,349 1,528,549 1,478,977 1,445,548
Percent unpaved 65.3 55.5 46.3 41.7 40.0 39.2 39.5 39.1 38.7 37.6 36.6
Number of employees                      
State and local govt. streets and highwaysw 532,000 607,000 559,000 569,000 544,000 R543,000 U R531,000 R530,000 543,000 546,000
Highway and street constructionx U U U 238,700 226,100 227,900 236,100 242,800 256,500 280,000 280,000

Performance 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Vehicle-miles of travel by functional system (millions)i                      
Rural mileage                      
Interstate y10,514 y79,516 y135,084 y200,173 y215,568 z223,382 z232,565 z240,255 z251,520 260,204 268,960
Other principal arterial N N 132,958 175,133 207,569 215,567 221,403 228,716 237,704 243,950 248,686
Minor arterial N N 129,816 155,733 149,760 153,028 157,444 163,342 165,780 169,378 171,883
Major collector N N 150,186 190,512 182,000 186,212 190,923 201,790 203,580 206,936 209,561
Minor collector N N 39,282 49,948 48,529 49,936 50,107 52,574 54,278 57,617 57,960
Local N N 84,704 97,379 104,915 105,164 107,752 114,673 120,595 125,545 127,911
Total rural 400,463 539,472 672,030 868,878 908,341 933,289 960,194 1,001,350 1,033,457 1,063,630 1,084,961
Urban                      
Interstate 13,365 81,532 161,242 278,901 330,577 341,515 351,579 361,401 374,622 382,986 393,580
Other freeways and expressways N N 79,690 127,465 147,534 151,509 157,502 159,622 166,626 171,563 177,142
Other principal arterial N N 229,469 335,543 364,200 370,365 377,776 385,125 388,073 392,721 398,652
Minor arterial N N 175,030 236,225 286,165 293,228 299,345 301,912 309,295 313,936 324,367
Collector N N 83,043 106,297 120,088 126,883 129,310 130,143 131,919 131,613 135,371
Local N N 126,791 191,053 200,683 205,907 208,374 222,142 228,530 234,886 235,730
Total urban 318,299 570,252 855,265 1,275,484 1,449,247 1,489,407 1,523,886 1,560,345 1,598,065 1,627,705 1,664,842
Total rural and urban 718,762 1,109,724 1,527,295 2,144,362 2,357,588 2,422,696 2,484,080 2,561,695 2,631,522 2,691,335 2,749,803
Highway demand for petroleum (thousand barrels)                      
Motor fuel AA1,378,095 AA2,198,310 AA2,737,143 AA3,113,214 BB3,353,320 BB3,424,616 BB3,492,285 BB3,580,620 R,BB3,699,500 BB3,843,128 BB3,863,338
Asphalt and road oil CC110,000 CC163,000 CC145,000 DD176,340 DD176,751 DD177,543 DD177,206 DD184,383 DD190,258 DD199,580 DD192,236
Total 1,488,095 2,361,310 2,882,143 3,289,554 3,530,071 3,602,159 3,669,491 3,765,003 R3,889,758 4,042,708 4,055,574

Safety 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Fatalities EE36,399 EE52,627 EE51,091 FF44,599 FF40,716 FF41,817 FF42,065 FF42,013 FF41,501 FF41,717 FF41,821
Injured persons N N N 3,231,000 3,266,000 3,465,000 3,483,000 3,348,000 3,192,000 3,236,000 3,189,000
Crashes N N N 6,471,000 6,496,000 6,699,000 6,770,000 6,624,000 6,335,000 6,279,000 6,394,000

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a The Federal Highway Trust Fund was created with the enactment of the Highway Revenue Act of 1956. The total receipts shown for 1995 are overstated by approximately $1.59 billion due to a fiscal year (FY) 1994 error by the Treasury Department in reconciling estimated deposits to the actual tax revenue. The correction was made after the close of FY1994 and is shown in FY1995 receipts.

b Figures obtained by addition/subtraction and may not appear directly in data source.

c Gross amounts collected by state governments from highway users. Does not include tolls. Not all revenues allocated to highway expenditures.

d Includes distributors and dealers licenses, inspection fees, fines and penalties, and miscellaneous receipts.

e Includes drivers licenses, title fees, special title taxes, fines and penalties; estimated service charges and local collections.

f Includes carrier gross receipt taxes; mileage, ton-mile and passenger-mile taxes; special license fees and franchise taxes; and certificate or permit fees.

g Mileage in federal parks, forests, and reservations that are not a part of the state and local highway system.

h Prior to 1999, mileage for municipal roads was included with the "other local roads" jurisdiction. Mileage for municipal roads was included in "Town, Township and Municipal Road" jurisdiction after 1999.

i Highway category classifications changed several times before 1980. Actual 1960 data categories were: main Rural Roads, local Rural Roads and Urban Streets; 1970 data categories were: Rural Interstate, Rural Other Arterial, Other Rural, Urban Interstate and Other Urban.

NOTES: Motor vehicle injury and crash data in this profile come from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's General Estimates System (GES). The data from GES, which began operation in 1988, are obtained from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all police-reported crashes, and the GES sample includes only crashes where a police accident report was completed and the crash resulted in property damage, injury, or death. The resulting figures do not take into account crashes which were not reported to the police or which did not result in at least property damage.

Earlier editions of NTS, particularly the 1993 Historical Compendium, used crash and injury figures estimated by the National Safety Council, which employed a different set of methods to arrive at its figures. Thus, the injury and crash figures in this edition of NTS may not be comparable with those found in earlier editions.

In 1998, FHWA instituted a new method of creating mileage based tables derived from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS). See Chapter 1 accuracy profiles for more information about the HPMS.

SOURCES: Unless otherwise noted, please refer to chapter tables for sources.

j U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table HF-210.

k Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000), tables HF-10A and HF-10.

l Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table MF-201.

m Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000), table MF-1.

n Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table MV-202.

o Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000) table MV-2.

p Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table M-203.

q Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table HM-210.

r Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000), table HM-10.

s Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table HM-220.

t Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000), table HM-20.

u Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table HM-212.

v Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000), table HM-12.

w U.S. Department of Commerce, Statistical Abstract of the United States, various years, State and Local Government Section.

x Ibid., Internet site http://stats.bls.gov/sahome.html as of Aug. 2, 2001.

y U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Summary to 1985 (Washington, DC: April 1987), table VM-201.

z Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Various years), table VM-2, VM-2A.

AA Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A (total fuel consumed in thousands of gallons divided by 42).

BB Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1(total fuel consumed in thousands of gallons divided by 42).

CC U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data Report, 1960-1980 (Washington, DC), p. 13.

DD Ibid., Petroleum Supply Annual (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 2.

EE U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, NRD-30,personal communication.

FF Ibid., Traffic Safety Facts 2000 (Washington, DC: 2001).