Water Transport Profile

Water Transport Profile

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Financial 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Operating revenues ($ millions)                    
Domestic freightk 1,722 2,070 7,219 7,940 7,745 7,712 R7,283 R6,940 R6,824 6,795
Coastal waterways 747 834 3,155 3,066 2,929 2,774 R2,571 2,169 R1,952 1,828
Inland waterways 461 621 2,395 2,956 2,868 2,964 R2,861 R2,899 R2,904 2,811
Great Lakes 227 239 513 615 577 585 R572 615 R610 549
Locks, channels 287 376 1,156 1,303 1,371 1,389 1,279 1,257 1,358 1,607
International freighth 1,765 3,187 8,279 12,181 13,405 R14,997 17,281 14,091 15,679 17,699
Passenger, total 281 287 R310 R1,391 R1,564 R1,716 R1,843 R1,974 R2,029 2,088
Domestic passenger, intercity 14 12 R27 R100 R121 129 R140 141 R146 152
International passengera 267 275 283 R1,291 R1,443 R1,587 R1,703 R1,833 R1,883 1,936
Revenues of U.S. commercial fishing fleet (domestic landings) ($ millions)l 354 613 2,237 3,522 3,809 3,770 3,487 3,448 3,128 3,467

Inventory 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Number of domestic inland vessel operatorsb,m 228 380 403 565 555 557 554 U U U
Number of employees                    
Ships, boat building, and repairing n141,200 n171,800 n220,500 o187,700 p158,200 p159,600 p158,800 p158,300 R,p166,600 p167,400
Water transportationc N 212,300 211,200 176,600 172,400 174,500 174,100 178,700 R181,300 185,500
Number of employeesd,i                    
Passenger/comboq 8,560 2,178 618 642 642 642 321 321 321 321
Cargo 28,668 22,257 9,878 7,019 6,056 5,400 4,964 4,831 4,924 4,757
Tankers 12,053 10,567 8,722 4,471 4,626 4,261 3,965 3,785 3,711 3,958
Total 49,281 35,000 19,218 12,132 11,324 10,303 9,250 8,937 8,956 9,036
Mileage of commercially navigable channelsk 25,000 26,000 26,000 26,000 26,000 26,000 26,000 26,000 26,000 26,000
Number of vessels                    
Total nonself-propelled r16,777 r19,377 r31,662 r31,209 r30,730 r31,360 r32,811 r33,011 r33,509 w33,387
Dry cargo barges and scows 14,025 15,890 27,426 27,091 26,723 27,342 28,743 29,006 29,526 29,383
Tankers 2,429 3,281 4,166 3,913 3,966 3,985 4,036 3,971 3,952 3,973
Railroad car floats 323 206 70 13 34 33 32 34 31 31
Total self-propelled 6,543 6,455 7,126 8,236 8,334 8,281 8,293 8,408 8,523 8,379
Dry cargo/passenger 1,796 1,761 2,036 2,678 2,785 2,804 2,782 2,905 2,938 2,910
Ferries, railroad car 31 17 67 135 175 172 173 183 213 229
Tankers 489 421 330 213 195 178 161 147 135 142
Towboats/tugs 4,203 4,248 4,693 5,210 5,179 5,127 5,177 5,173 5,237 5,098
U.S. merchant marine ships (over 1,000 gross tons)                    
Total U. S. flags 2,926 1,579 864 636 543 509 495 477 470 463
Passenger/cargo 309 171 65 10 13 13 15 14 12 11
Freighters 2,138 1,076 471 367 308 295 292 288 289 284
Bulk carriers 57 38 20 26 22 20 15 14 15 14
Tankers 422 294 308 233 200 181 173 161 154 154
Privately owned 1,008 U 578 408 354 319 302 285 281 277
Government owned 1,918 U 286 228 189 190 193 192 189 186
Number of recreational boats (thousands)e,t 2,500 7,400 8,905 10,996 11,430 11,735 11,878 12,313 R12,566 12,738

Performance 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Ton-miles (thousands)f                    
Domestic water freight                    
Coastwiseu N 359,784,000 R631,149,200 479,133,600 R457,600,700 440,345,100 408,086,100 349,843,000 314,863,900 292,730,000
Internal N 155,816,000 R227,343,000 292,393,300 R297,762,400 306,329,100 296,790,600 294,023,000 294,896,400 304,724,100
Lakewise N 79,416,000 R61,747,100 60,929,900 R58,263,400 59,703,800 58,335,300 62,165,900 61,654,300 57,045,200
Intraport N 1,179,000 R1,596,400 1,087,000 R1,292,700 1,349,600 1,474,500 1,378,100 1,380,700 1,362,200
Total N 596,195,000 R921,835,800 853,543,800 R814,919,200 R807,727,700 R764,686,500 707,409,900 R672,795,300 655,861,500
Tons of freight hauled (thousands)                    
Domestic                    
Coastwise 209,197 238,440 329,609 298,637 277,029 266,612 267,389 263,146 249,633 228,802
Internal 291,057 472,123 534,979 622,595 618,409 620,324 622,081 630,558 625,028 624,575
Lakewise 155,109 157,059 115,124 110,159 114,777 116,127 114,870 122,734 122,156 113,887
Intraport 104,193 81,475 94,184 86,378 82,870 83,104 89,011 89,816 90,077 88,650
Intraterritory 1,017 1,630 3,588 4,529 5,926 6,868 7,327 6,273 7,217 5,873
Total 760,573 950,727 1,077,483 1,122,299 1,099,011 1,093,035 1,100,679 1,112,527 1,094,112 1,061,787
Exports                    
Great Lakes ports 23,150 35,932 45,077 32,898 27,108 32,968 31,855 33,209 36,876 40,233
Coastal ports 104,810 205,698 358,806 408,688 369,138 441,732 418,940 399,104 367,831 359,763
Total 127,961 241,629 403,883 441,586 369,246 474,700 450,794 432,313 404,708 399,996
Imports                    
Great Lakes ports 12,851 26,406 15,515 R17,558 23,028 18,897 24,503 24,532 25,558 22,196
Coastal ports 198,466 312,934 502,006 582,412 696,469 653,760 708,090 763,771 815,122 838,579
Total 211,316 339,340 517,521 599,970 719,497 672,657 732,593 788,303 840,680 860,775
Average haul, domestic system (miles)f                    
Coastwise 1,496 1,509 1,915 1,604 1,652 1,652 1,526 1,330 1,261 1,279
Internal 282 330 405 470 482 494 477 466 472 488
Lakewise 522 506 536 553 508 514 508 507 505 501
Cargo capacity (short tons)                    
Total nonself-propelled vessels r16,355,657 r24,026,024 r44,875,116 r48,946,785 r49,708,960 r51,140,530 r54,086,973 r54,974,961 r55,999,952 w56,566,140
Dry cargo barges 12,147,006 17,695,275 34,486,851 38,189,490 38,643,518 39,971,443 42,748,644 43,710,093 44,718,691 45,049,209
Tankers 4,208,651 6,330,749 10,388,265 10,757,295 11,065,442 11,169,087 11,338,329 11,264,868 11,281,261 11,418,856
Total self-propelled vessels 15,905,881 19,284,050 23,906,346 19,723,788 16,867,458 15,783,399 14,850,253 14,161,739 12,970,167 13,892,574
Dry cargo/passenger 12,188,956 10,815,977 8,011,587 7,042,263 7,118,193 6,484,707 6,208,011 6,685,719 6,371,425 6,928,684
Tankers 3,716,925 8,468,073 15,894,753 12,681,525 9,749,265 9,298,692 8,642,242 7,476,020 6,598,742 6,963,890
Fuel consumption (thousand barrels)                    
Diesel fuel and distillatek 18,730 19,503 35,201 52,310 48,260 47,098 51,848 50,180 50,609 49,157
Residual fuel oil 94,084 89,850 213,131 148,764 141,544 153,125 R138,214 114,044 110,480 133,301
Gasoline 9,200 14,238 25,048 30,962 R20,846 R25,247 23,659 R23,505 22,767 26,146
Total 122,014 123,591 273,380 232,036 R210,650 R225,470 R213,721 R187,729 183,856 208,604

Safety 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Fatalities in waterborne transport (vessel casualties only)j                    
Freight ship N v30 v8 v0 R,x0 R,x0 R,x1 R,x2 R,x2 x0
Tank ship N 4 4 5 R3 R0 R0 R0 R1 0
Passenger vessel N 1 5 3 R4 R4 R8 R1 R3 14
Tug/towboat N 22 14 13 R1 R1 R1 R3 R0 6
Offshore supply N N N 2 R1 R2 R2 R0 R6 0
Fishing vessel N 77 60 47 R48 R23 R37 R22 R33 25
Recreational vessel N N N 3 R13 R22 R3 R7 R7 9
MODUg N N N 0 R0 R0 R0 R4 R0 0
Platform N N N 1 U U U U U U
Freight barge N N N 0 R2 R0 R0 R2 R1 0
Tank barge N H N 0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 1
Miscellaneous N 44 56 11 R5 R0 R3 R7 R14 3
Totalj N 178 206 85 R77 R52 R55 R48 R67 58
Injuries in waterborne transport                    
Freight ship N 14 8 10 R6 R1 R7 R3 R3 2
Tank ship N 19 9 13 R10 R8 R1 R5 R6 1
Passenger vessel N 10 10 51 R43 R47 R142 R36 R39 76
Tug/towboat N 10 27 19 R19 R19 R16 R21 R12 15
Offshore supply N N N 9 R2 R10 R7 R3 R5 1
Fishing vessel N 13 28 31 R55 R41 R36 R25 R35 25
Recreational vessel N N N 2 R17 R20 R9 R6 R9 12
MODUg N N N 13 R0 R0 R0 R3 R0 2
Platform N N N 9 U U U U U U
Freight barge N N N 3 R4 R0 R0 R5 R1 1
Tank barge N N N 3 R3 R5 R2 R0 R0 1
Miscellaneous N N 98 12 R21 R1 R9 R12 R20 9
Totalj N 105 180 175 R180 R152 R229 R119 R130 145
Fatalities in recreational boating (vessel casualties only)                    
Air thrustt N N N N N 4 1 6 11 2
Propeller N N N N N 475 363 436 462 421
Inboard N t119 t100 t50 t36 N N N N 50
Outboard N 774 609 454 341 N N N N 326
Inboard/outboard N 28 47 53 49 N N N N 35
Jet N N 10 25 58 68 61 83 82 75
Sail N 44 43 20 13 4 8 15 5 7
Manual (oars, paddle) N 205 272 182 140 148 109 150 151 114
Other N 29 14 5 12 8 8 10 0 N
Propulsion unknown N 219 265 76 135 122 159 121 104 115
Total t739 1,418 1,360 865 748 829 709 821 815 734

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a Revenues paid by American travelers to U.S. and foreign flag carriers.

b Does not include vessel operators whose primary area of operation is fishing, towing, passenger transport, ferrying, or crew boat utility service.

c Includes commercial port, marina, and other employees; excludes employees of not-for-hire private businesses.

d Estimate based on established active jobs for licensed and unlicensed personnel aboard oceangoing ships of 1,000 gross-tons and over, privately owned and operated, government-owned ships under bare boat charters, ship managers and General Agency Agreement, supplemented by Military Sealift Command employment totals for ships with Civil Service crews.

e The U.S. Coast Guard changed its methodology for counting the number of recreational boats. Figures cited represent number of numbered boats, not estimates as previously noted for 1960 and 1970.

f Does not include intraterritorial traffic (traffic between ports in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, which are considered a single unit).

g Mobile Offshore Drilling Units.

h The international water freight operating revenues data was revised in Transportation in America 1998 for all years except 1994 and 1996. Therefore, the international water freight data for years 1994 and 1996 may not be comparable to other years.

i Data is current as of January 1 of the following year with the exception of 1999 data, which is current as of Apr. 1, 1999. Due to a change in the source's periodicity, the data for 1999 is not comparable to the data from years prior to 1999.

j 1992-2000 data come from the Marine Safety Management Information System. Data for prior years may not be directly comparable.

SOURCES: Unless otherwise noted, refer to chapter tables for sources.

k Eno Transportation Foundation Inc., Transportation in America, 2000 (Washington, DC: 2001), pp. 7, 10-11, 27, 44.

l U.S. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Services, Fisheries of the United States (Washington, DC: Annual issues), p. 4 and similar tables in earlier editions.

m U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, MAR-450, personal communication.

n U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment, Hours and Earnings, United States, 1909-1994 (Washington, DC: September 1994), SICs 373 and 44.

o Ibid., Employment, Hours and Earnings, 1988-1996 (Washington, DC: August 1996), SICs 373 and 44.

p Ibid., Internet website www.bls.gov as of Aug. 21, 2001.

q U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, U.S. Merchant Marine Data Sheet (Washington, DC: Annual issues).

r U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Summary of U.S. Flag Passenger & Cargo Vessels (New Orleans, LA: Annual issues).

s U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, Merchant Fleets of the World (Washington, DC: Annual issues).

t U.S. Coast Guard, Boating Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues).

u U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United States (New Orleans, LA: Annual issues), part 5, section 1, tables 2, 3, and 4

v U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Investigations and Analysis, G-MAO-2, personal communication.

w U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States (New Orleans, LA: Annual issues) part 1, section 1, table 1.

x U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Data Administration Division (G-MRI-1), personal communication, Feb. 13, 2002.