Table 4-6: Energy Consumption by Mode of Transportation (Trillion Btu)

Table 4-6: Energy Consumption by Mode of Transportation (Trillion Btu)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Air                          
Certificated carriersa                          
Jet fuel 264 525 1,061 1,020 1,150 1,366 1,678 1,730 1,780 1,844 1,873 1,944 2,004
General aviationb                          
Aviation gasoline 29 35 66 50 63 51 42 35 35 35 37 42 40
Jet fuel N 8 28 61 103 93 90 76 82 87 110 131 135
Highway                          
Gasoline, diesel and other fuels                          
Passenger car and motorcycle 5,146 6,215 8,485 9,282 8,773 8,963 8,720 8,534 8,677 8,762 8,988 9,187 9,141
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle N e 1,539 2,385 2,975 3,420 4,451 5,701 5,919 6,173 6,308 6,607 6,604
Single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck N 1,921 550 752 960 1,026 1,159 1,278 1,305 1,328 946 1,300 1,324
Combination truck N 923 1,019 1,273 1,808 1,942 2,238 2,743 2,801 2,816 3,489 3,403 3,557
Bus 115 121 114 146 141 116 124 134 137 142 144 159 154
Transitc                          
Electricity 10 9 9 9 8 14 17 17 17 17 17 18 P19
Motor fuel                          
Diesel 29 34 38 51 60 84 90 94 96 99 103 106 P109
Gasoline and other nondiesel fuelsd 24 16 9 1 1 6 4 8 8 7 7 6 P6
Compressed natural gas N N N N N N N 1 2 3 5 6 P8
Rail, Class I (in freight service)                          
Distillate / diesel fuel 480 498 492 507 541 431 432 483 496 496 497 515 513
Amtrak                          
Electricity N N N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Distillate / diesel fuel N N N 9 9 9 11 9 10 10 10 10 11
Water                          
Residual fuel oil 592 463 565 608 1,340 687 947 881 853 750 841 874 960
Distillate / diesel fuel oil 109 90 114 152 205 236 286 324 345 357 360 336 314
Gasoline N N 75 91 132 132 163 133 124 123 120 137 141
Pipeline                          
Natural gas 358 516 745 601 654 519 680 722 734 775 655 665 664

KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; E = estimate; kWh = kilowatt-hour; N = data do not exist; P = preliminary.

a Domestic operations only.

b Includes fuel used in air taxi operations, but not commuter operations.

c Prior to 1984, excludes commuter rail, automated guideway, ferryboat, demand responsive vehicles, and most rural and smaller systems.

d Gasoline and all other nondiesel fuels such as liquefied natural gas, methanol, and propane, except compressed natural gas.

e Included in other single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck category.

NOTES

The following conversion rates were used:

Jet fuel = 135,000 Btu/gallon

Compressed natural gas = 138,700 Btu/gallon

Aviation gasoline = 120,200 Btu/gallon

Distillate fuel = 138,700 Btu/gallon

Automotive gasoline = 125,000 Btu/gallon

Residual fuel = 149,700 Btu/gallon

Diesel motor fuel = 138,700 Btu/gallon

Natural gas = 1,031 Btu/ft3

Electricity 1kWh = 3,412 Btu, negating electrical system losses. To include approximate electrical system losses, multiply this conversion factor by 3.

SOURCES

Air:

Certificated air carriers:

1960-2000: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html as of Aug. 1, 2002.

General aviation:

1960-80: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Policy, Plans, and Management Analysis, FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation (Washington, DC: Annual issues).

1985-93: Ibid., General Aviation and Avionics Survey (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 5.1 and similar tables in earlier editions.

1994: Ibid., FAA Aerospace Forecasts Fiscal Years 2000-2011 (Washington, DC: March 2000), table 29.

1995-2001: lbid., FAA Aerospace Forecasts Fiscal Years 2002-2013 (Washington, DC: March 2002), table 30.

Highway:

1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A (revised data obtained from internet site http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/ohimstat.htm as of Aug. 2, 2001).

1995-2000: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Transit:

Electricity / motor fuel / compressed natural gas:

1960-2000: American Public Transit Association, Public Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: March 2002), tables 65, 66, 67, and similar tables in earlier editions.

Rail:

1960-2000: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: October 2001), p. 40.

2001: Ibid., personal communication, Aug. 12, 2002.

Amtrak:

1975-2001: Amtrak, Energy Management Department, personal communication.

Water:

Residual and distillate / diesel fuel oil:

1960-80: American Petroleum Institute, Basic Petroleum Data Book (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables 10, 10a, 12, and 12a.

1985-2000: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables 2, 4, and similar tables in earlier editions.

Gasoline:

1970-2000: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table MF-24 and similar tables in earlier editions.

Pipeline:

1960-98: U.S. Department of Energy, Natural Gas Annual 1999, DOE/EIA-0131(99) (Washington, DC: October 2000), table 94.

1999-2000: Ibid., Natural Gas Annual 2000, DOE/EIA-0131(00) (Washington DC: November 2001), table 95.