Table 4-20M: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Kilojoule per passenger-kilometer)

Table 4-20M: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Kilojoule per passenger-kilometer)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Air, certificated air carrier                                  
Domestic operations 5,659 6,633 6,677 5,078 3,755 3,308 3,233 3,062 2,992 2,988 2,913 2,873 2,742 2,731 2,703 2,655 R2,584
International operations 6,031 6,748 7,202 5,550 2,845 3,345 2,980 3,022 2,792 2,687 2,718 2,736 2,693 2,733 2,804 2,703 2,628
Highwaya                                  
Passenger car 2,947 2,921 3,174 3,109 2,850 2,797 2,499 2,395 2,428 2,481 2,472 2,439 2,418 2,397 2,384 2,407 2,346
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle N N 4,465 4,308 3,743 3,259 2,918 2,804 2,790 2,803 2,849 2,975 2,977 2,992 2,995 3,024 2,947
Motorcycle b b 1,639 1,543 1,393 1,243 1,305 1,257 1,305 1,352 1,400 1,491 1,489 1,490 1,490 1,490 1,490
Transit motor bus N N N N 1,798 2,226 2,441 2,470 2,647 2,586 2,728 2,724 2,751 2,772 2,710 2,651 P2,719
Amtrak N N N 1,562 1,419 1,373 1,353 1,297 1,334 1,326 1,269 1,205 1,408 1,442 1,402 1,381 1,399

KEY: N = data do not exist; P = preliminary; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a For 1995 and subsequent years, highway passenger-miles were taken directly from Highway Statistics rather than derived from vehicle-miles and average occupancy, as is the case for 1960-1994. Passenger-miles were then converted to passenger-kilometers.

b Included in passenger car.

NOTES

To calculate total joules, multiply fuel consumed (see tables 4-21, 4-22, 4-24, 4-25) by 37,626,700 joules/liter for air carrier, 34,839,537 joules/liter for passenger car, other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle, and motorcycle, and 38,657,950 joules/liter for transit motor bus and Amtrak.

1.609344 kilometers = 1 mile.

SOURCES

Air:

Certificated air carriers:

Passenger-kilometers:

Air Transport Association, Internet site http://www.air-transport.org/public/industry as of Aug. 30, 2002.

Fuel consumed:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html as of Aug. 30, 2002.

Highway:

Passenger car:

1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2000: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle:

1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2000: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Motorcycle:

1970-85: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1990-2000: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Transit motor bus:

American Public Transportation Association, Public Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: February 2002), tables 30 and 65.

Amtrak:

Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communication.