Table 1-35: Average Length of Haul, Domestic Freight and Passenger Modes

Table 1-35: Average Length of Haul, Domestic Freight and Passenger Modes

(Miles)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Freight                                      
Air carrier 953 943 1,014 1,082 1,052 1,157 1,389 1,346 1,391 1,347 1,221 1,160 1,181 1,077 1,078 1,001 982 973 U
Trucka 272 259 263 286 363 366 391 398 410 407 392 416 426 435 442 458 473 485 U
Class I rail 461 503 515 541 616 665 726 751 763 794 817 843 842 851 835 835 843 859 853
Coastwise (water) 1,496 1,501 1,509 1,362 1,915 1,972 1,604 1,705 1,762 1,650 1,652 1,652 1,526 1,330 1,261 1,279 1,251 1,228 1,219
Lakewise (water) 522 494 506 530 536 524 553 535 519 514 508 514 508 507 505 501 506 509 529
Internal (water) 282 297 330 358 405 435 470 483 479 468 482 494 477 466 472 488 481 476 483
Intraport (water) U U U 16 17 15 13 13 12 12 16 16 17 15 15 15 16 15 15
Crude (oil pipeline) 325 320 300 633 871 777 812 822 830 790 778 797 779 781 767 766 U U U
Petroleum products (oil pipeline) 269 335 357 516 414 391 387 379 379 406 414 402 413 413 420 418 U U U
Passenger                                      
Air carrier, domestic, scheduled 583 614 678 698 736 758 803 806 806 799 787 791 802 817 812 824 833 (R) 850 842
Bus, intercity 79 94 106 113 125 121 141 143 136 138 138 140 143 144 144 143 143 U U
Commuter rail 21 21 22 23 23 24 22 23 23 22 21 24 24 23 23 23 23 23 23
Amtrakb N N N 236 216 231 273 285 286 280 279 268 256 256 251 248 244 237 U

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a Total Class I and Class II motor carriers of freight (less-than-truckload, specialized carrier for truckload, and others).

b Amtrak began operations in 1971. Data are reported for fiscal years.

NOTES

Average length of haul for freight is calculated by dividing ton-miles in table 1-46 by estimates of tonnage from the various data sources. The calculation of average length of haul for passenger trips varies by mode: for air carrier it is calculated by dividing revenue passenger-miles by revenue passenger enplanements; for commuter rail, intercity bus, and Amtrak it is calculated by dividing passenger-miles by number of passengers.

SOURCES

Freight:

Air carrier, truck:

Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation In America, 2002 (Washington, DC: 2002), p. 65.

Class I rail:

Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: 2003), p. 36.

Water:

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Part 5 (New Orleans, LA: Annual issues), section 1, table 1-4 .

Oil pipeline:

1960-70: Transportation Policy Associates, Washington, DC, personal communication.

1975-99: Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation in America, 2002 (Washington, DC: 2002), p. 65.

Passenger:

Air carrier:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), p. 3, line 34.

Intercity bus:

Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation in America, 2002 (Washington, DC: 2002), p. 64.

Commuter Rail:

1960-2000: Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation in America, 2002 (Washington, DC: 2002), p. 64.

2001-02: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database (Washington, DC: annual issues), table 19 and similar tables in earlier editions.

Amtrak:

1970-85: Amtrak, corporate communication, Jan. 26, 1999.

1990-2001: Amtrak, Amtrak Annual Report (Washington, DC: 2003), Statistical Appendix.