Table 1-66: Annual Highway Congestion Cost

Table 1-66: Annual Highway Congestion Cost

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Population group Urban area Annual congestion cost per capita ($) Annual congestion cost ($ millions)
1998 Value 1999 Value 2000 Value 2001 Value 2002 Value 1998 Rank 1999 Rank 2000 Rank 2001 Rank 2002 Rank 1998 Value 1999 Value 2000 Value 2001 Value 2002 Value 1998 Rank 1999 Rank 2000 Rank 2001 Rank 2002 Rank
Medium Akron, OH 141 144 139 133 116 57 61 61 61 69 76 78 76 73 64 58 64 66 66 67
Medium Albany-Schenectady, NY (R) 78 (R) 89 (R) 98 (R) 110 110 (R) 73 (R) 74 (R) 73 (R) 70 71 (R) 39 (R) 46 (R) 51 (R) 57 58 (R) 71 (R) 69 (R) 70 (R) 69 69
Medium Albuquerque, NM (R) 397 (R) 430 (R) 322 (R) 319 267 (R) 14 (R) 11 (R) 31 (R) 31 42 (R) 224 (R) 245 (R) 184 (R) 181 154 (R) 37 (R) 39 (R) 45 47 50
Small Allentown-Bethlehem, PA-NJ 132 108 126 121 128 60 67 64 67 67 76 63 69 71 76 58 67 67 67 66
Small Anchorage, AK (R) 31 (R) 30 (R) 31 (R) 43 46 (R) 85 (R) 85 (R) 85 (R) 85 84 8 8 (R) 8 (R) 12 13 (R) 83 (R) 83 (R) 84 (R) 83 82
Large Atlanta, GA (R) 514 (R) 468 (R) 527 (R) 491 573 (R) 3 (R) 10 (R) 8 (R) 10 6 (R) 1,438 (R) 1,337 (R) 1,567 (R) 1,467 1,716 (R) 11 (R) 12 (R) 10 (R) 11 11
Medium Austin, TX (R) 316 (R) 391 (R) 434 (R) 465 461 (R) 21 (R) 19 (R) 14 13 17 (R) 231 (R) 291 (R) 334 (R) 374 387 (R) 36 (R) 33 (R) 30 29 29
Small Bakersfield, CA (R) 53 (R) 52 (R) 65 (R) 69 69 (R) 78 (R) 82 (R) 80 (R) 81 80 (R) 20 (R) 20 (R) 26 (R) 28 30 (R) 77 (R) 77 (R) 77 (R) 76 75
Large Baltimore, MD (R) 280 (R) 294 (R) 329 (R) 381 466 (R) 28 (R) 32 (R) 29 (R) 22 15 (R) 603 (R) 634 (R) 716 (R) 842 1,069 (R) 21 (R) 22 20 19 16
Small Beaumont, TX (R) 89 (R) 98 (R) 103 (R) 105 140 (R) 68 (R) 69 (R) 71 (R) 72 61 (R) 12 (R) 14 (R) 15 (R) 15 20 (R) 80 (R) 81 (R) 80 (R) 81 80
Medium Birmingham, AL (R) 198 (R) 211 (R) 225 (R) 236 248 (R) 42 (R) 42 (R) 41 (R) 43 44 (R) 131 (R) 140 (R) 151 (R) 158 168 48 (R) 47 (R) 48 (R) 50 49
Very large Boston, MA-NH-RI (R) 396 (R) 430 (R) 451 (R) 480 475 15 (R) 11 (R) 11 (R) 11 13 (R) 1,194 (R) 1,299 (R) 1,366 (R) 1,453 1,440 (R) 13 (R) 13 (R) 12 (R) 12 12
Small Boulder, CO (R) 68 (R) 69 (R) 77 (R) 89 88 (R) 75 (R) 77 (R) 79 (R) 75 73 (R) 7 8 9 (R) 10 9 (R) 84 (R) 83 (R) 83 (R) 84 84
Medium Bridgeport-Stamford, CT-NY 212 261 275 303 301 37 36 36 35 36 165 205 220 248 256 45 42 40 37 41
Small Brownsville, TX (R) 35 (R) 40 (R) 49 (R) 52 45 (R) 84 (R) 84 (R) 83 (R) 84 85 5 6 (R) 8 (R) 9 8 (R) 85 (R) 85 (R) 84 (R) 85 85
Large Buffalo, NY (R) 45 (R) 62 (R) 79 (R) 83 85 (R) 81 (R) 78 (R) 77 (R) 77 76 (R) 49 (R) 68 (R) 87 (R) 93 95 (R) 67 (R) 66 (R) 64 (R) 61 62
Small Cape Coral, FL (R) 111 (R) 115 (R) 115 (R) 119 132 (R) 65 (R) 66 (R) 67 (R) 68 64 (R) 30 (R) 32 (R) 34 (R) 36 42 (R) 72 (R) 73 (R) 73 (R) 73 72
Small Charleston-North Charleston, SC (R) 169 (R) 185 (R) 203 (R) 193 205 (R) 50 49 45 51 50 (R) 74 (R) 81 (R) 93 (R) 89 95 (R) 60 (R) 62 (R) 62 (R) 63 62
Medium Charlotte, NC-SC (R) 276 (R) 303 (R) 361 (R) 363 420 29 (R) 30 (R) 21 26 20 (R) 170 (R) 189 (R) 233 (R) 241 303 (R) 43 (R) 45 (R) 37 (R) 38 34
Very large Chicago, IL-IN (R) 415 (R) 416 (R) 424 (R) 455 520 (R) 13 (R) 16 (R) 15 (R) 15 8 (R) 3,345 (R) 3,363 (R) 3,432 (R) 3,692 4,221 3 3 3 3 3
Large Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN (R) 273 (R) 290 (R) 326 (R) 339 378 (R) 30 (R) 33 (R) 30 (R) 28 26 (R) 348 (R) 371 (R) 419 (R) 437 500 (R) 25 (R) 27 27 (R) 26 26
Large Cleveland, OH (R) 149 (R) 156 (R) 141 (R) 124 110 (R) 54 (R) 57 (R) 60 (R) 65 71 (R) 277 (R) 289 (R) 263 (R) 233 206 31 34 (R) 35 41 43
Small Colorado Springs, CO (R) 162 (R) 186 (R) 206 (R) 228 215 (R) 52 (R) 48 44 46 48 (R) 69 (R) 82 (R) 96 (R) 107 102 (R) 63 (R) 60 (R) 61 (R) 57 59
Small Columbia, SC 51 58 80 70 74 80 80 76 79 79 21 24 33 29 31 76 76 74 75 74
Large Columbus, OH (R) 302 (R) 331 (R) 294 (R) 279 276 (R) 25 (R) 26 (R) 35 (R) 37 39 (R) 311 (R) 343 (R) 306 (R) 293 291 (R) 28 (R) 28 (R) 32 (R) 33 36
Small Corpus Christi, TX (R) 37 (R) 50 (R) 43 (R) 65 59 (R) 83 (R) 83 (R) 84 (R) 82 82 (R) 12 (R) 16 (R) 14 (R) 21 19 (R) 80 (R) 80 (R) 81 (R) 79 81
Very Large Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (R) 417 (R) 597 (R) 549 (R) 559 627 (R) 12 (R) 2 (R) 5 (R) 8 3 (R) 1,588 (R) 2,342 (R) 2,192 (R) 2,268 2,603 7 4 5 (R) 6 5
Medium Dayton, OH 180 203 190 173 139 47 45 47 55 62 107 121 113 103 83 52 53 53 58 65
Large Denver-Aurora, CO (R) 499 (R) 512 (R) 582 (R) 635 470 (R) 5 8 (R) 3 (R) 3 14 (R) 914 (R) 952 (R) 1,113 (R) 1,287 954 14 16 15 14 18
Very large Detroit, MI (R) 429 (R) 420 (R) 413 (R) 457 481 (R) 9 14 (R) 16 (R) 14 12 (R) 1,726 (R) 1,690 (R) 1,661 (R) 1,844 1,939 6 (R) 9 (R) 9 (R) 9 9
Medium El Paso, TX-NM (R) 81 (R) 123 (R) 155 (R) 188 175 (R) 72 (R) 64 (R) 58 (R) 52 54 (R) 52 (R) 80 (R) 102 (R) 124 117 (R) 66 (R) 63 (R) 58 (R) 55 56
Small Eugene, OR (R) 58 (R) 80 (R) 111 (R) 91 86 (R) 77 (R) 75 (R) 68 (R) 74 75 (R) 13 (R) 18 (R) 24 (R) 21 21 (R) 79 (R) 78 (R) 78 (R) 79 79
Medium Fresno, CA (R) 135 (R) 164 (R) 177 (R) 149 143 (R) 59 55 (R) 52 (R) 60 60 (R) 74 (R) 90 (R) 98 (R) 83 84 (R) 60 (R) 59 (R) 59 (R) 65 64
Medium Grand Rapids, MI 174 178 172 176 191 48 54 54 53 51 87 91 89 92 101 57 58 63 62 61
Medium Hartford, CT (R) 122 (R) 127 (R) 134 (R) 161 164 (R) 64 (R) 63 (R) 63 (R) 57 56 (R) 104 (R) 110 (R) 116 (R) 140 143 (R) 53 55 (R) 52 (R) 52 52
Medium Honolulu, HI (R) 207 (R) 218 (R) 181 (R) 197 175 (R) 41 (R) 40 (R) 50 (R) 50 54 (R) 145 (R) 152 (R) 126 (R) 138 123 (R) 46 (R) 46 (R) 50 (R) 53 54
Very large Houston, TX (R) 459 (R) 562 (R) 534 (R) 565 586 (R) 8 (R) 5 (R) 7 (R) 6 5 (R) 1,524 (R) 1,916 (R) 1,869 (R) 2,051 2,178 (R) 9 7 (R) 8 (R) 8 8
Large Indianapolis, IN (R) 300 (R) 299 (R) 342 (R) 371 357 (R) 27 (R) 31 (R) 26 (R) 23 28 (R) 305 (R) 305 (R) 348 (R) 381 369 (R) 29 (R) 32 (R) 29 28 31
Medium Jacksonville, FL (R) 232 (R) 239 (R) 248 (R) 267 296 (R) 35 (R) 37 (R) 38 (R) 40 37 (R) 195 (R) 203 (R) 214 (R) 237 269 (R) 40 (R) 43 (R) 42 (R) 39 40
Large Kansas City, MO-KS (R) 147 (R) 180 (R) 152 (R) 153 145 (R) 55 (R) 52 (R) 59 (R) 59 58 (R) 202 (R) 251 (R) 215 (R) 218 215 (R) 39 (R) 37 (R) 41 (R) 44 42
Small Laredo, TX (R) 53 (R) 58 (R) 54 (R) 70 66 (R) 78 (R) 80 (R) 82 (R) 79 81 (R) 9 (R) 10 (R) 10 (R) 14 13 (R) 82 (R) 82 (R) 82 (R) 82 82
Large Las Vegas, NV (R) 262 (R) 288 (R) 298 (R) 271 266 (R) 31 (R) 34 (R) 34 (R) 39 43 (R) 288 (R) 331 (R) 364 (R) 352 364 (R) 30 (R) 30 (R) 28 (R) 30 32
Small Little Rock, AR 73 99 84 104 84 74 68 75 73 78 23 32 27 35 29 75 73 76 74 77
Very large Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA (R) 899 (R) 922 (R) 896 (R) 883 879 1 1 1 1 1 (R) 11,066 (R) 11,364 (R) 11,060 (R) 10,915 11,231 1 1 1 1 1
Medium Louisville, KY-IN (R) 309 (R) 346 (R) 345 (R) 316 357 23 (R) 22 25 (R) 33 28 (R) 256 (R) 289 (R) 290 (R) 265 302 (R) 34 (R) 34 (R) 33 (R) 36 35
Medium Memphis, TN-MS-AR (R) 211 (R) 217 (R) 247 (R) 274 290 (R) 38 (R) 41 (R) 39 (R) 38 38 (R) 204 (R) 211 (R) 240 (R) 269 285 (R) 38 (R) 41 (R) 36 (R) 35 37
Very Large Miami, FL (R) 347 (R) 393 (R) 439 (R) 475 512 (R) 17 (R) 18 (R) 13 (R) 12 10 (R) 1,572 (R) 1,814 (R) 2,138 (R) 2,357 2,558 (R) 8 (R) 8 (R) 6 (R) 5 6
Large Milwaukee, WI (R) 208 (R) 237 (R) 242 (R) 232 220 (R) 40 (R) 38 (R) 40 (R) 44 46 (R) 270 (R) 315 (R) 331 (R) 325 318 (R) 32 (R) 31 31 (R) 32 33
Large Minneapolis - St. Paul, MN (R) 373 (R) 429 (R) 363 (R) 407 398 16 (R) 13 (R) 18 (R) 18 23 (R) 865 (R) 1,008 (R) 872 (R) 986 971 15 (R) 15 (R) 18 (R) 17 17
Medium Nashville-Davidson, TN (R) 259 (R) 324 (R) 341 (R) 348 390 (R) 33 (R) 28 (R) 27 27 24 (R) 170 (R) 214 (R) 229 (R) 236 273 (R) 43 (R) 40 (R) 39 (R) 40 39
Medium New Haven, CT 141 187 210 265 207 57 47 42 41 49 73 97 110 142 113 62 57 56 51 57
Large New Orleans, LA (R) 173 (R) 182 (R) 172 (R) 174 161 (R) 49 (R) 50 54 54 57 (R) 188 (R) 199 (R) 187 (R) 191 177 (R) 41 (R) 44 (R) 44 (R) 46 47
Very large New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT (R) 330 (R) 374 (R) 357 (R) 392 409 (R) 18 20 (R) 22 21 21 (R) 5,415 (R) 6,143 (R) 6,100 (R) 6,725 7,080 2 2 2 2 2
Large Oklahoma City, OK (R) 99 (R) 123 (R) 99 (R) 112 132 (R) 66 (R) 64 (R) 72 (R) 69 64 (R) 102 (R) 128 (R) 108 (R) 121 144 (R) 54 (R) 50 (R) 57 56 51
Medium Omaha, NE-IA (R) 165 (R) 179 (R) 179 (R) 204 217 51 (R) 53 (R) 51 (R) 49 47 (R) 97 (R) 109 (R) 111 (R) 128 138 (R) 56 (R) 56 54 (R) 54 53
Large Orlando, FL (R) 427 (R) 419 (R) 523 (R) 561 486 (R) 10 (R) 15 (R) 9 (R) 7 11 (R) 478 (R) 477 (R) 615 (R) 684 613 (R) 23 (R) 24 (R) 23 (R) 22 23
Medium Oxnard-Ventura, CA 188 208 264 319 305 43 43 37 31 34 102 134 146 177 172 54 48 49 48 48
Small Pensacola, FL-AL (R) 146 (R) 154 (R) 190 (R) 171 176 (R) 56 (R) 59 (R) 47 56 53 (R) 43 (R) 46 (R) 58 (R) 52 55 (R) 68 (R) 69 (R) 68 (R) 70 70
Very large Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD (R) 306 (R) 337 (R) 308 (R) 369 389 (R) 24 (R) 25 (R) 32 (R) 24 25 (R) 1,448 (R) 1,601 (R) 1,470 (R) 1,772 1,871 (R) 10 (R) 10 (R) 11 (R) 10 10
Large Phoenix, AZ (R) 323 (R) 407 (R) 407 (R) 450 437 (R) 20 (R) 17 (R) 17 16 18 (R) 825 (R) 1,099 (R) 1,140 (R) 1,305 1,289 16 (R) 14 (R) 14 (R) 13 14
Large Pittsburgh, PA (R) 131 (R) 148 (R) 116 (R) 127 115 (R) 61 (R) 60 (R) 66 (R) 63 70 (R) 232 (R) 261 (R) 205 (R) 223 203 (R) 35 (R) 36 (R) 43 (R) 43 44
Large Portland, OR-WA (R) 316 (R) 345 (R) 352 (R) 368 367 (R) 21 (R) 23 (R) 23 (R) 25 27 (R) 465 (R) 521 (R) 539 (R) 585 589 (R) 24 23 (R) 24 24 24
Medium Providence, RI-MA (R) 158 (R) 206 (R) 192 (R) 223 311 (R) 53 (R) 44 (R) 46 (R) 47 33 (R) 187 (R) 247 (R) 232 (R) 273 384 42 (R) 38 (R) 38 (R) 34 30
Medium Raleigh-Durham, NC 187 182 209 283 244 44 50 43 36 45 128 128 153 214 191 49 50 46 45 45
Medium Richmond, VA (R) 184 (R) 156 (R) 124 (R) 123 145 46 (R) 57 (R) 65 (R) 66 58 (R) 136 (R) 117 (R) 97 (R) 100 121 (R) 47 (R) 54 (R) 60 (R) 60 55
Large Riverside-San Bernardino, CA (R) 462 (R) 469 (R) 472 (R) 529 561 (R) 7 (R) 9 (R) 10 (R) 9 7 (R) 647 (R) 667 (R) 693 (R) 805 904 19 (R) 20 (R) 21 20 19
Medium Rochester, NY (R) 42 (R) 60 (R) 59 (R) 57 55 (R) 82 (R) 79 (R) 81 (R) 83 83 (R) 27 (R) 38 (R) 38 (R) 37 36 (R) 73 (R) 72 (R) 72 (R) 72 73
Large Sacramento, CA (R) 248 (R) 277 (R) 308 (R) 308 349 (R) 34 (R) 35 (R) 32 (R) 34 30 (R) 335 (R) 378 (R) 429 (R) 440 526 (R) 26 (R) 26 26 (R) 25 25
Small Salem, OR (R) 92 (R) 92 (R) 105 (R) 109 137 (R) 67 (R) 72 (R) 70 (R) 71 63 (R) 18 (R) 18 (R) 21 (R) 23 30 (R) 78 (R) 78 (R) 79 (R) 78 75
Medium Salt Lake City, UT (R) 127 (R) 144 (R) 169 (R) 249 304 (R) 62 (R) 61 (R) 56 (R) 42 35 (R) 113 (R) 129 (R) 152 (R) 227 277 51 (R) 49 (R) 47 (R) 42 38
Large San Antonio, TX (R) 211 (R) 308 (R) 363 (R) 328 344 (R) 38 (R) 29 (R) 18 (R) 29 32 (R) 260 (R) 382 (R) 454 (R) 414 434 (R) 33 (R) 25 (R) 25 (R) 27 27
Large San Diego, CA (R) 260 (R) 339 (R) 349 (R) 395 465 (R) 32 (R) 24 (R) 24 (R) 19 16 (R) 691 (R) 916 (R) 958 (R) 1,098 1,314 (R) 18 17 (R) 16 (R) 16 13
Very large San Francisco-Oakland, CA (R) 514 (R) 568 (R) 623 (R) 667 675 (R) 3 (R) 4 2 2 2 (R) 2,064 (R) 2,285 (R) 2,513 (R) 2,697 2,779 4 5 4 4 4
Large San Jose, CA (R) 425 (R) 516 (R) 548 (R) 578 518 11 7 6 (R) 5 9 (R) 702 (R) 861 (R) 919 (R) 970 871 (R) 17 18 (R) 17 18 20
Medium Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 124 157 157 159 187 63 56 57 58 52 64 82 84 85 102 65 60 65 64 59
Large Seattle, WA (R) 486 (R) 540 (R) 440 (R) 442 435 (R) 6 (R) 6 (R) 12 (R) 17 19 (R) 1,251 (R) 1,401 (R) 1,146 (R) 1,184 1,175 (R) 12 (R) 11 (R) 13 (R) 15 15
Small Spokane, WA (R) 85 (R) 95 (R) 95 (R) 84 88 (R) 70 (R) 70 (R) 74 (R) 76 73 (R) 27 (R) 31 (R) 31 (R) 28 29 (R) 73 (R) 75 (R) 75 (R) 76 77
Medium Springfield, MA-CT 68 71 78 76 85 75 76 78 78 76 41 43 48 47 55 70 71 71 71 70
Large St. Louis, MO-IL (R) 301 (R) 327 (R) 363 (R) 322 348 26 (R) 27 (R) 18 (R) 30 31 (R) 602 (R) 657 (R) 740 (R) 662 719 22 (R) 21 (R) 19 (R) 23 22
Large Tampa-St Petersburg, FL (R) 329 (R) 355 (R) 339 (R) 395 399 (R) 19 (R) 21 (R) 28 (R) 19 22 (R) 614 (R) 673 (R) 661 (R) 790 808 (R) 20 (R) 19 (R) 22 21 21
Medium Toledo, OH-MI 85 95 108 125 124 70 70 69 64 68 42 47 54 63 62 69 68 69 68 68
Medium Tucson, AZ (R) 185 (R) 191 (R) 186 (R) 229 269 (R) 45 (R) 46 (R) 49 (R) 45 41 (R) 122 (R) 128 (R) 126 (R) 162 191 50 (R) 50 50 (R) 49 45
Medium Tulsa, OK (R) 87 (R) 91 (R) 139 (R) 128 131 (R) 69 (R) 73 (R) 61 (R) 62 66 (R) 66 (R) 70 (R) 111 (R) 103 106 (R) 64 (R) 65 (R) 54 (R) 58 58
Large Virginia Beach, VA (R) 219 (R) 229 (R) 177 (R) 218 270 (R) 36 (R) 39 (R) 52 (R) 48 40 (R) 317 (R) 336 (R) 265 (R) 331 412 (R) 27 (R) 29 (R) 34 (R) 31 28
Very large Washington, DC-VA-MD (R) 559 (R) 590 (R) 563 (R) 594 600 (R) 2 (R) 3 (R) 4 (R) 4 4 (R) 1,957 (R) 2,089 (R) 2,026 (R) 2,216 2,274 5 6 (R) 7 (R) 7 7
NA 85-Area Average (R) 368 (R) 401 (R) 399 (R) 420 435 NA NA NA NA NA (R) 595 (R) 655 (R) 663 (R) 707 743 NA NA NA NA NA
NA Very Large Area Average (R) 486 (R) 527 (R) 517 (R) 543 567 NA NA NA NA NA (R) 2,991 (R) 3,264 (R) 3,257 (R) 3,454 3,652 NA NA NA NA NA
NA Large Area Average (R) 306 (R) 337 (R) 341 (R) 358 364 NA NA NA NA NA (R) 503 (R) 561 (R) 580 (R) 619 639 NA NA NA NA NA
NA Medium Area Average (R) 178 (R) 200 (R) 208 (R) 226 238 NA NA NA NA NA (R) 121 (R) 137 (R) 144 (R) 159 170 NA NA NA NA NA
NA Small Area Average (R) 94 (R) 100 (R) 112 (R) 114 116 NA NA NA NA NA (R) 28 30 (R) 34 (R) 35 36 NA NA NA NA NA

KEY: NA = not applicable; R = revised.

Very large urban areas - over 3 million population.

Large urban areas - over 1 million and less than 3 million population.

Medium urban areas - over 500,000 and less than 1 million population.

Small urban areas - less than 500,000 population.

NOTES

The urban areas included are those containing over 500,000 people and several smaller places mostly chosen by previous sponsors of the Texas Transportation Institute study on mobility.

The cost of congestion is estimated with a value for each hour of travel time and each gallon of fuel. For a more detailed explanation of the formulas used, see the source document.

SOURCE

1998-2002: Texas Transportation Institute, The 2004 Annual Urban Mobility Report (College Station, TX: 2004), Internet site http://mobility.tamu.edu as of Sep. 13, 2004.