Table 4-20M: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes

Table 4-20M: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes

(Kilojoule per passenger-kilometer)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Air, certificated carrier                                        
Domestic operations 5,659 6,633 6,677 5,078 3,764 3,308 3,233 3,062 2,992 2,988 2,913 2,873 2,742 2,731 2,703 2,655 2,546 2,550 2,357 2,279
International operations 6,031 6,748 7,202 5,550 2,845 3,345 2,980 3,022 2,792 2,687 2,718 2,736 2,693 2,733 2,804 2,703 2,513 2,599 2,570 2,553
Highwaya                                        
Passenger car 2,947 2,921 3,174 3,109 2,850 2,799 2,498 2,395 2,428 2,481 2,472 2,439 2,418 2,397 2,384 2,407 2,353 (R) 2,358 2,360 2,329
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle N N 4,465 4,308 3,743 3,259 2,976 2,804 2,790 2,803 2,849 2,975 2,977 2,992 2,995 3,024 2,956 (R) 2,612 2,702 2,667
Motorcycle b b 1,639 1,543 1,393 1,243 1,460 1,257 1,305 1,352 1,400 1,491 1,489 1,490 1,490 1,490 1,490 (R) 1,343 1,291 1,291
Transit motor bus N N N N 1,798 2,222 2,441 2,470 2,647 2,586 2,728 2,724 2,751 2,772 2,710 2,651 2,719 2,424 2,894 U
Amtrak N N N 1,562 1,408 1,370 1,354 1,297 1,334 1,326 1,269 1,205 1,411 1,442 1,402 1,381 1,399 U U U

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a For 1995 and subsequent years, highway passenger-miles were taken directly from Highway Statistics rather than derived from vehicle-miles and average occupancy, as is the case for 1960-1994. Passenger-miles were then converted to passenger-kilometers.

b Included in passenger car.

NOTES

To calculate total joules, multiply fuel consumed (see tables 4-21, 4-22, 4-24, 4-25) by 37,626,700 joules/liter for air carrier, 34,839,537 joules/liter for passenger car, other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle, and motorcycle, and 38,657,950 joules/liter for transit motor bus and Amtrak.

1.609344 kilometers = 1 mile.

SOURCES

Air:

Certificated air carriers:

Passenger-kilometers:

Air Transport Association, Internet site http://www.airlines.org as of July 1, 2004.

Fuel consumed:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html as of July 1, 2004.

Highway:

Passenger car:

1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2003: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle:

1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2003: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Motorcycle:

1970-85: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1990-2003: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Transit motor bus:

American Public Transportation Association, Public Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: February 2003), table 70.

Amtrak:

Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communication.