Table 4-39: Estimated National Average Vehicle Emissions Rates by Vehicle Type Using Reformulated Gasoline (Grams per mile)

Table 4-39: Estimated National Average Vehicle Emissions Rates by Vehicle Type Using Reformulated Gasoline (Grams per mile)

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  1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Light-duty vehicles                  
Exhaust HC 1.45 1.28 1.15 1.04 0.97 0.84 0.76 0.68 0.62
Nonexhaust HC 0.89 0.87 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59
Total HC 2.34 2.15 2.01 1.88 1.78 1.48 1.39 1.29 1.21
Exhaust CO 22.78 20.84 19.43 18.25 17.21 15.36 14.85 14.31 13.88
Exhaust NOx 1.78 1.64 1.55 1.46 1.35 1.24 1.19 1.12 1.06
Light-duty trucks                  
Exhaust HC 2.09 1.85 1.69 1.55 1.44 1.28 1.18 1.07 0.97
Nonexhaust HC 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.62
Total HC 3.01 2.74 2.58 2.41 2.28 1.95 1.84 1.71 1.59
Exhaust CO 31.86 29.46 27.70 26.19 24.63 22.25 21.23 20.08 18.39
Exhaust NOx 1.84 1.73 1.65 1.59 1.55 1.47 1.45 1.41 1.36
Heavy-duty vehicles                  
Exhaust HC 2.14 1.91 1.70 1.48 1.32 1.16 1.03 0.92 0.77
Nonexhaust HC 1.72 1.64 1.56 1.50 1.43 1.12 1.07 1.03 1.01
Total HC 3.86 3.55 3.26 2.98 2.75 2.28 2.10 1.96 1.78
Exhaust CO 46.02 41.15 36.62 32.80 29.12 25.87 22.88 20.41 16.87
Exhaust NOx 6.13 5.90 5.74 5.57 5.41 5.18 5.01 4.86 4.75
Motorcycles                  
Exhaust HC 1.69 1.63 1.63 1.62 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61
Nonexhaust HC 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.44
Total HC 2.24 2.17 2.16 2.16 2.14 2.04 2.04 2.04 2.05
Exhaust CO 12.64 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56
Exhaust NOx 1.26 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25
Average of all RFG and diesel vehicles                  
Exhaust HC 1.65 1.46 1.34 1.23 1.15 1.02 0.94 0.86 0.78
Nonexhaust HC 0.85 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.57
Total HC 2.50 2.30 2.16 2.03 1.93 1.64 1.54 1.44 1.35
Exhaust CO 24.92 22.93 21.56 20.38 19.27 17.44 16.76 15.99 15.01
Exhaust NOx 3.36 3.24 3.18 3.12 3.02 2.85 2.71 2.58 2.40

KEY: CO = carbon monoxide; HC = hydrocarbon; NOx = nitrogen oxide; RFG = reformulated gasoline.

NOTES

As of July 1 of each year. Vehicle types are defined as follows: light-duty vehicles (passenger cars up to 6,000 lb gross vehicle weight rating GVWR) ; light-duty trucks (pickups and minivans up to 8,500 lb GVWR); heavy-duty vehicles (8,501 lb or more GVWR); motorcycle (on-highway only). The data in this table are based on MOBILE6, and reflect the introduction of RFG starting in 1995. Emissions factors are national averages based on the following assumptions: ambient temperature 75 F, daily temperature range 60 -84 F, average traffic speed 27.6 mph (representative of overall traffic in urban areas), standard operating mode (cold-start, hot-start, stabilized), vehicle-miles traveled fractions and no inspection/maintenance or antitampering programs.

Emissions estimates in this table assume 100% RFG.

SOURCES

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, personal communications, July 31, 2002 and Nov. 26, 2003.