Air Carrier Profile

Air Carrier Profile

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Financial

  1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Operating revenues (thousand dollars) 1                              
Domestic total a 2,178,339 7,180,161 26,440,297 57,960,508 65,948,993 70,885,050 76,890,526 82,249,568 86,493,789 90,931,479 98,895,837 86,511,248 79,220,149 88,179,380 U
Majors, all services 1,942,635 6,272,775 23,012,073 53,333,552 59,846,676 64,317,169 70,036,709 74,942,391 77,650,810 82,615,015 89,290,585 78,599,844 71,837,353 75,953,691 U
Nationals, all services 146,481 736,831 3,182,418 4,167,552 5,465,021 5,935,773 5,990,391 6,163,458 8,113,690 7,789,636 9,104,701 7,485,642 6,738,116 11,161,453 U
Large regionals, all services N N 245,806 459,404 637,296 632,108 863,426 1,143,719 729,289 526,828 500,551 425,762 644,680 1,064,236 U
International total 705,938 2,109,497 6,442,144 17,990,355 22,364,429 23,433,483 25,046,820 27,318,034 26,971,289 28,106,973 31,403,421 28,715,591 27,482,292 27,567,329 U
Majors, all services 705,938 2,109,497 5,976,221 16,761,376 19,222,842 19,892,111 21,524,274 23,608,853 23,356,233 24,671,152 28,100,884 25,883,361 24,549,966 24,896,068 U
Nationals, all services N N 465,923 901,352 2,697,137 3,282,606 3,326,467 3,376,014 3,161,212 3,142,217 2,909,590 2,512,290 2,583,498 2,090,717 U
Large regionals, all services N N N 327,627 444,450 258,766 196,079 333,166 453,844 293,604 392,947 319,940 348,828 580,544 U
Total certificated a 2,884,877 9,289,658 32,882,441 75,950,863 88,313,422 94,318,533 101,937,346 109,567,602 113,465,078 119,038,452 130,299,258 115,226,839 106,702,441 115,746,709 U
Operating expenses (thousand dollars) 1                              
Domestic total a 2,052,094 7,001,668 26,465,999 58,953,086 63,757,937 66,119,699 71,573,073 75,731,215 78,388,515 84,328,320 93,578,562 94,891,737 86,696,559 90,827,606 U
Majors, all services 1,907,785 6,256,039 23,150,527 54,209,401 57,824,115 59,721,080 64,793,763 68,307,270 70,114,852 76,506,077 84,208,514 86,611,140 79,299,562 79,659,763 U
Nationals, all services 144,309 745,629 3,058,289 4,297,823 5,285,783 5,750,372 5,847,797 6,163,923 7,500,451 7,299,934 8,824,795 7,809,449 6,725,692 10,166,967 U
Large regionals, all services N N 257,183 445,862 648,039 648,247 931,513 1,260,021 773,212 522,309 545,253 471,148 671,305 1,000,876 U
International total 665,660 2,065,605 6,642,095 18,914,480 21,842,021 22,335,257 24,155,203 25,249,593 25,748,752 26,307,097 29,735,718 30,658,472 28,563,067 27,103,118 U
Majors, all services 665,660 2,065,605 6,171,366 17,746,006 18,875,302 19,061,258 20,807,517 21,688,642 22,321,441 23,218,938 26,645,342 27,664,641 25,703,233 24,624,881 U
Nationals, all services N N 470,729 853,361 2,503,462 3,025,707 3,166,097 3,253,249 3,014,282 2,815,341 2,659,021 2,672,662 2,539,233 1,945,654 U
Large regionals, all services N N N 315,113 463,257 248,292 181,589 307,702 413,029 272,819 431,355 321,169 320,601 532,583 U
Total certificated a 2,717,754 9,067,273 33,108,094 77,867,566 85,599,958 88,454,956 95,728,276 100,980,807 104,137,267 110,635,417 123,314,280 125,550,209 115,259,626 117,930,724 U

Inventoryb

  1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Number of carriers c,2                              
Total domestic and international 55 39 66 59 80 89 90 82 80 82 76 69 72 65 69
Majors N N 14 12 11 11 12 13 13 13 14 15 13 14 14
Nationals N N 18 15 23 27 31 31 27 31 33 27 30 26 28
Regionals N N 34 32 46 51 47 38 40 38 29 27 29 25 27
Number of aircraft available for service 3                              
Total domestic and international 2,135 2,690 2,818 4,727 5,221 5,567 5,961 5,770 6,144 6,254 6,522 6,081 5,819 6,675 U
Majors N N 2,071 3,854 4,085 4,039 4,422 4,352 4,605 4,711 5,118 4,996 4,530 4,948 U
Nationals N N 432 650 819 1,143 1,167 967 1,113 1,319 1,182 952 1,079 1,299 U
Regionals N N 315 223 317 385 372 451 426 224 222 133 210 428 U
Number of employees c,2                              
Total domestic and international 169,872 304,690 354,264 588,926 585,427 610,363 634,866 656,243 696,408 728,495 732,049 653,488 642,797 609,401 618,733
Majors 118,189 214,021 318,973 549,100 526,379 533,313 564,631 597,953 623,389 650,267 672,294 607,857 585,890 534,902 526,822
Nationals 12,470 24,913 29,922 32,077 46,670 59,444 56,586 47,662 59,620 68,138 56,056 41,865 52,470 69,350 84,118
Regionals N N 5,369 7,749 12,378 17,606 13,649 10,628 13,399 10,090 3,699 3,766 4,437 5,149 7,793

Performance

  1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Aircraft revenue-miles (thousands)                              
Domestic 4                              
Certificated, all services 858,451 2,067,598 2,523,375 3,963,263 4,379,830 4,629,394 4,811,453 4,910,948 5,034,691 5,332,483 5,664,281 5,548,323 5,616,309 (R) 6,084,823 6,551,569
Major, all services 716,961 1,778,065 2,113,669 3,547,339 3,760,064 3,953,287 4,083,664 4,191,113 4,260,052 4,598,092 4,784,663 4,680,536 4,418,671 (R) 4,266,926 4,632,858
Nationals, all services 94,794 247,055 330,528 351,946 519,312 569,641 614,519 594,241 702,913 668,646 813,061 809,367 939,355 (R) 1,257,934 1,493,217
Large regionals, all services N N 56,995 60,542 78,573 85,363 96,573 112,682 51,199 47,438 52,941 40,936 44,128 (R) 79,565 101,215
International 5                              
Certificated, all services 181,605 474,666 400,971 760,338 979,765 997,658 1,043,313 1,113,816 1,192,489 1,225,218 1,281,706 1,265,939 1,224,662 (R) 1,261,957 1,384,197
Major, all services N N 330,391 666,231 809,242 822,283 859,483 917,109 1,003,726 1,053,219 1,117,712 1,119,387 1,048,152 (R) 1,028,157 1,148,114
Nationals, all services N N 66,499 48,812 119,839 141,870 150,147 145,821 145,494 138,135 132,497 124,764 147,046 (R) 182,910 180,428
Large regionals, all services N N 2,948 60,542 41,067 27,761 22,519 47,138 40,398 29,474 27,890 17,516 24,698 (R) 43,788 47,030
Medium regionals, all services, domestic and international N N 23,204 9,017 31,500 28,847 27,861 16,660 21,024 22,697 17,223 15,976 25,164 (R) 26,857 23,965
Total certificated 1,040,056 2,542,264 2,924,346 4,723,601 5,359,595 5,627,052 5,854,766 6,024,764 6,227,180 6,557,701 7,056,534 6,814,264 6,840,971 (R) 7,346,780 7,935,768
Aircraft revenue-hours                              
Domestic 4                              
Certificated, all services 3,672,900 5,133,161 6,247,795 9,717,375 10,721,374 11,378,134 11,871,886 12,060,253 12,445,483 13,091,273 13,905,472 13,507,906 13,727,415 (R) 15,245,620 16,223,363
Major, all services 2,802,317 4,066,480 4,941,327 8,524,236 8,864,840 9,257,260 9,584,525 9,828,418 9,957,390 10,863,178 11,308,820 10,908,397 10,297,655 (R) 9,862,375 10,758,442
Nationals, all services 606,146 908,935 919,187 1,016,491 1,579,771 1,839,835 1,981,219 1,882,975 2,299,916 2,053,335 2,419,285 2,302,845 2,469,537 (R) 3,348,721 3,897,054
Large regionals, all services N N 267,522 167,826 223,951 223,007 260,985 315,506 143,197 126,602 142,900 112,813 113,446 (R) 203,221 251,679
International 5                              
Certificated, all services 608,736 977,325 819,518 1,556,760 1,978,381 2,021,060 2,113,467 2,235,441 2,394,095 2,456,726 2,595,893 2,569,314 2,495,108 (R) 2,593,960 2,841,354
Major, all services N N 668,199 1,351,349 1,607,155 1,634,465 1,712,416 1,819,583 1,992,776 2,090,817 2,229,167 2,239,473 2,099,919 (R) 2,067,148 2,317,696
Nationals, all services N N 140,329 101,533 251,902 314,066 329,311 309,948 311,540 290,582 299,259 282,776 330,647 (R) 411,425 398,909
Large regionals, all services N N 7,583 88,641 97,967 59,572 48,619 97,304 83,437 62,658 60,381 37,451 54,486 (R) 97,975 102,695
Medium regionals, all services, domestic and international N N 123,411 24,059 74,169 70,989 68,278 41,960 51,322 60,827 41,553 50,396 77,373 (R) 83,545 84,022
Total certificated 4,281,636 6,110,486 7,190,724 11,298,194 12,699,755 13,399,194 13,985,353 14,295,694 14,839,578 15,547,999 16,501,365 16,077,220 16,222,523 (R) 17,839,580 19,064,717
Revenue passenger-miles (thousands)                              
Domestic 4                              
Certificated, all services 31,098,944 108,441,978 204,367,599 34,872,950 388,398,689 403,887,802 434,651,687 450,612,482 463,262,198 488,356,869 516,128,630 486,506,043 482,309,630 (R) 505,158,654 556,689,817
Majors, all services 29,430,428 99,903,229 182,984,795 327,112,620 352,063,855 368,701,100 395,099,254 410,906,050 421,217,665 451,399,646 472,284,794 440,413,336 425,605,781 (R) 424,148,397 462,026,551
Nationals, all services 1,170,779 7,642,071 20,466,712 16,756,818 31,339,182 29,255,179 33,000,546 33,241,082 37,699,063 33,267,469 40,549,113 43,541,665 49,906,626 (R) 67,778,579 83,886,589
Large regionals, all services N N 711,868 1,752,615 3,757,414 4,381,267 5,443,071 5,778,338 3,124,802 2,627,816 2,527,254 1,999,953 2,048,656 (R) 3,728,298 5,884,338
International 5                              
Certificated, all services 8,950,672 39,695,392 63,354,387 126,362,697 149,107,689 154,869,249 161,512,010 169,356,100 172,255,197 180,269,038 192,797,653 178,343,137 171,859,992 (R) 168,605,233 193,961,020
Majors, all services N N 54,318,160 118,268,507 133,299,897 137,986,520 145,330,811 153,564,956 157,398,986 168,175,060 181,585,899 169,335,413 163,432,281 (R) 156,267,725 179,788,812
Nationals, all services N N 8,659,592 6,794,533 13,459,194 16,128,695 14,681,127 13,616,245 13,471,798 9,649,710 8,447,916 7,710,903 6,803,106 (R) 8,760,401 10,876,092
Large regionals, all services N N 330,288 1,219,706 1,964,944 676,925 505,337 2,148,486 1,097,330 2,145,931 2,675,654 1,219,133 1,356,128 (R) 3,450,941 3,212,445
Medium regionals, all services, domestic and international N N 250,571 330,848 1,621,892 1,627,365 2,103,551 713,425 1,507,751 1,360,275 855,653 628,777 1,627,448 (R) 960,228 468,208
Total certificated 40,049,616 148,137,370 267,972,557 472,566,495 537,506,378 558,757,051 596,163,697 619,968,582 635,517,395 668,625,907 708,926,283 664,849,180 654,169,622 (R) 673,763,887 750,650,837
Average passenger revenue / passenger-mile 6                              
(Domestic, scheduled service) 6.09 6.00 11.49 13.43 13.12 13.48 13.76 13.97 14.08 13.72 14.56 13.25 12.00 12.22 U
Average passenger fare 6                              
(Domestic, scheduled service) 30.01 40.65 84.60 107.86 103.21 106.66 110.37 114.10 114.08 114.99 121.27 111.60 101.94 102.90 U
Revenue passenger enplanements (thousands)                              
Domestic 4                              
Certificated, all services 56,352 153,662 275,182 428,767 489,351 506,789 538,394 548,735 566,951 589,170 616,778 574,881 564,400 (R) 592,412 635,515
Major, all services 48,678 122,866 223,237 393,927 428,328 441,650 466,743 478,253 486,903 519,760 537,379 496,453 468,052 (R) 452,298 487,020
Nationals, all services 5,949 26,726 47,145 32,015 53,361 55,656 62,183 61,316 74,281 65,072 76,092 75,599 83,035 (R) 111,375 128,966
Large regionals, all services N N 3,748 2,566 6,138 7,136 7,887 8,203 4,352 3,152 2,226 1,688 1,590 (R) 2,257 3,569
International 5                              
Certificated, all services 5,904 16,620 26,514 46,126 51,330 52,864 54,515 56,767 57,759 57,702 60,828 56,650 56,864 (R) 53,863 62,276
Major, all services N N 23,949 42,207 42,702 44,155 46,302 48,614 49,610 50,604 53,157 50,077 50,599 (R) 49,327 57,434
Nationals, all services N N 2,343 2,632 6,608 8,114 7,401 6,896 7,038 5,446 5,788 5,662 5,325 (R) 4,350 4,574
Large regionals, all services N N 149 1,246 1,741 556 405 1,231 940 1,404 1,810 833 669 (R) 121 124
Medium regionals, all services, domestic and international N N 1,125 300 1,803 2,386 1,988 989 1,586 1,434 1,154 1,211 1,884 (R) 1,420 1,267
Total certificated 62,256 169,922 302,821 475,193 540,681 559,653 592,909 605,502 624,710 646,872 677,606 631,531 612,266 (R) 646,276 697,792
Revenue passenger Load factor (%) (scheduled service)                              
Domestic 4                              
Certificated 58.5 48.9 58.0 60.4 64.7 65.4 67.9 69.1 70.0 69.8 71.2 69.1 70.3 (R) 72.6 74.4
Majors 59.5 49.3 58.1 60.6 65.0 65.7 68.5 69.7 70.4 70.3 71.6 69.3 70.6 72.9 74.8
Nationals 41.9 43.6 58.4 56.6 62.6 61.9 61.5 63.2 65.1 64.7 66.5 67.0 68.7 (R) 72.5 73.7
Large regionals N N 47.7 48.7 60.0 56.0 60.4 60.7 58.8 42.4 59.2 54.6 60.8 (R) 71.2 69.7
International 5                              
Certificated 62.2 53.0 62.8 69.1 70.6 71.8 73.3 74.1 72.8 74.4 76.0 72.8 76.6 76.5 79.1
Majors N N 62.8 69.1 70.8 72.1 73.7 74.4 72.9 74.5 76.1 72.9 76.8 76.8 79.3
Nationals N N 65.5 73.4 68.2 67.7 67.8 69.6 70.9 73.7 73.4 70.0 67.9 64.7 70.4
Large regionals N N 73.9 66.5 46.8 44.5 0.0 64.9 46.0 U 58.0 67.0 62.3 70.2 73.3
Medium regionals, all services,                              
domestic and international N N 46.7 0.0 53.8 59.3 66.7 49.7 58.2 58.3 35.5 60.4 57.8 (R) 64.3 58.7
U.S. international passenger travel d, 7                              
Total passenger-arrivals (thousands)                              
Flag of carrier: United States 1,332 5,531 10,031 19,145 23,291 24,582 25,148 26,744 27,390 27,462 29,837 27,985 26,953 26,557 U
Flag of carrier: Foreign 1,234 4,343 10,231 17,269 20,527 22,328 24,704 27,571 28,791 30,324 32,380 28,715 26,912 27,395 U
Total passenger-departures (thousands)                              
Flag of carrier: United States 1,200 4,949 9,369 17,628 21,355 22,231 22,901 24,302 24,513 25,457 27,431 25,483 23,610 24,070 U
Flag of carrier: Foreign 1,136 4,147 9,886 16,418 18,993 20,795 22,884 25,382 26,350 28,399 30,068 27,111 24,996 25,897 U
Total revenue ton-miles (thousands) e                              
Domestic 4                              
Certificated, all services 3,732,949 13,876,802 24,964,907 43,651,162 50,631,589 52,910,081 56,326,750 58,658,887 60,199,459 63,032,722 66,595,204 61,731,557 62,051,854 (R) 65,746,594 72,609,907
Majors, all services 3,332,483 12,589,057 21,427,534 39,107,033 44,952,734 47,015,642 50,096,661 52,254,323 53,424,349 56,696,427 59,095,406 54,798,905 54,168,780 (R) 54,249,753 58,514,726
Nationals, all services 121,157 850,477 3,336,057 3,561,283 4,510,285 4,996,345 231,398 5,317,576 6,012,665 5,705,158 6,799,198 6,192,307 6,297,409 (R) 8,179,227 11,652,939
Large regionals, all services N N 180,042 945,929 1,002,552 718,659 863,449 971,942 508,172 507,053 588,975 623,649 812,852 (R) 1,597,949 1,189,561
International 5                              
Certificated, all services 1,291,336 6,308,701 9,689,067 19,975,915 24,879,791 26,295,684 28,177,721 30,944,299 31,481,513 32,810,136 35,161,431 32,736,774 33,883,040 (R) 35,168,909 39,706,482
Majors, all services N N 7,377,733 17,803,825 20,681,991 21,517,789 22,880,295 24,971,379 25,794,344 27,949,876 30,683,564 28,394,238 27,861,326 (R) 27,099,570 30,614,905
Nationals, all services N N 2,261,534 1,229,849 3,201,089 4,116,380 4,603,920 4,657,365 4,376,654 4,257,520 3,815,162 3,868,702 5,344,254 (R) 7,078,302 7,785,113
Large regionals, all services N N 44,438 835,701 862,184 513,476 396,142 1,240,303 1,269,602 566,689 565,198 433,174 618,332 (R) 836,714 1,074,199
Medium regionals, all services,                              
domestic and international N N 28,178 143,457 300,545 327,474 432,606 190,298 265,186 160,135 209,132 151,434 297,252 (R) 289,396 306,725
Total certificated 5,024,285 20,185,503 34,682,153 63,770,534 75,511,380 79,205,765 84,504,471 89,603,186 91,650,972 95,842,858 101,756,635 94,468,332 95,934,895 (R) 100,915,504 112,316,389
Revenue ton-miles of freight (thousands)                              
Domestic 4                              
Certificated, all services 552,756 2,708,900 4,528,316 9,063,864 11,802,778 12,520,057 12,860,845 13,601,412 13,839,605 14,201,933 14,982,615 13,069,461 13,881,707 (R) 15,230,729 16,940,924
Majors, all services 321,176 U 3,129,087 6,395,767 9,746,354 10,145,537 10,586,741 11,163,518 11,302,583 11,556,463 11,866,926 10,750,087 11,608,200 (R) 11,834,913 12,312,071
Nationals, all services 3,850 U 1,289,510 1,885,600 1,387,322 2,070,570 1,931,201 1,993,498 2,239,140 2,378,206 2,744,086 1,837,861 1,306,920 (R) 1,401,369 3,264,280
Large regionals, all services N N 108,864 770,670 626,842 280,512 318,542 398,153 195,791 249,706 337,068 423,739 608,325 (R) 1,225,120 601,127
International 5                              
Certificated, all services 268,156 1,566,105 3,353,371 7,339,660 9,970,189 10,854,620 12,031,634 14,008,685 14,262,373 14,782,231 15,880,424 14,902,664 16,697,508 (R) 18,308,387 20,310,380
Majors, all services N N 1,945,660 5,976,973 7,351,998 7,719,138 8,347,214 9,614,881 10,054,448 11,132,370 12,524,977 11,460,695 11,518,098 (R) 11,472,798 12,636,024
Nationals, all services N N 1,395,575 550,409 1,855,167 2,549,371 3,140,921 3,295,738 3,035,853 3,291,549 2,970,370 3,097,665 4,663,944 (R) 6,202,263 6,697,504
Large regionals, all services N N 11,409 713,733 666,863 445,783 345,609 1,025,455 1,159,869 352,095 296,387 311,412 483,186 (R) 491,620 752,954
Medium regionals, all services, domestic and international N N 3,124 110,372 138,421 163,766 222,251 118,854 114,294 23,775 123,225 84,745 194,815 (R) 193,374 259,905
Total certificated 820,907 3,755,436 7,884,811 16,513,896 21,772,967 23,374,677 24,892,479 27,610,097 28,101,978 28,984,164 30,863,039 27,972,125 30,579,215 (R) 33,539,117 37,251,305

Safety 8

  1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Air carrier fatalities                              
Operating under 14 CFR 121 (airlines)                              
Scheduled services N N 0 39 239 166 342 3 1 12 92 531 0 22 U
Nonscheduled services N N 1 0 0 2 38 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 U
Operating under 14 CFR 135                              
Scheduled services (commuters) N N 37 6 25 9 14 46 0 12 5 13 0 2 U
Nonscheduled services (on-demand air taxis) N N 105 51 63 52 63 39 45 38 71 60 35 45 U
Total 499 146 143 96 327 229 457 93 46 62 168 604 35 69 U
Air carrier accidents                              
Operating under 14 CFR 121 (airlines)                              
Scheduled services N N 15 22 19 34 32 44 43 46 50 42 34 52 U
Nonscheduled services N N 4 2 4 2 5 5 7 5 6 4 7 2 U
Operating under 14 CFR 135                              
Scheduled services (commuters) N N 38 15 10 12 11 16 8 13 12 7 8 2 U
Nonscheduled services (on-demand air taxis) N N 171 107 85 75 90 82 77 73 80 72 59 77 U
Total 90 55 228 146 118 123 138 147 135 137 148 125 108 133 U
Fatal air carrier accidents                              
Operating under 14 CFR 121 (airlines)                              
Scheduled services N N 0 6 4 2 3 3 1 2 3 6 0 2 U
Nonscheduled services N N 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 U
Operating under 14 CFR 135                              
Scheduled services (commuters) N N 8 3 3 2 1 5 0 5 1 2 0 1 U
Nonscheduled services (on-demand air taxis) N N 46 29 26 24 29 15 17 12 22 18 18 19 U
Total 17 8 55 38 33 29 35 24 18 19 26 26 18 22 U

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a Some totals include data not in the table; thus totals may not equal sum of table data.

b Includes scheduled and nonscheduled (charter) operators. By Sec. 2 of the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 "charter air carrier" and "charter air transportation" replaced supplemental air carriers and supplemental air transportation, which were formerly Sec. 101(36) and (37) of the Act. The 24 pre-deregulation supplemental carriers now have scheduled service authority.

c Total includes only those carriers who have reported employment statistics to BTS' Office of Airline Information.

d Passenger travel totals do not include Canada because the source does not record departures and arrivals to and from Canada.

e Total Revenue Ton-Miles includes passenger, freight, express, and mail.

NOTES

Domestic encompasses operations within and between the 50 states of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. It also encompasses Canadian and Mexican transborder operations (U.S. airlines only). All other operations are considered international.

SOURCES

Unless otherwise noted, refer to chapter tables for sources.

1 1960-1970: Civil Aeronautics Board, Handbook of Airline Statistics, 1969 and 1973 (Washington, DC), pp. 69 and 71. 1980: Civil Aeronautics Board, Air Carrier Financial Statistics, December 1981 (Washington, DC), pp. 3/28, 42, and 44. 1990-2003: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (pre-1995, U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration), Air Carrier Financial Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual December issue), pp. 3, 35, 36, 71, and 72 and similar pages in earlier editions.

2 1960: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, http://www.bts.gov/oai/employees/employcov.html as of Oct. 14, 2003. 1970-2004: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, http://www.bts.gov/programs/airline_information/number_of_employees/certificated_carriers/ as of Mar. 25, 2005.

3 Ibid., personal communication, Oct. 17, 2003 and Sept. 10, 2004.

4 1960-1970: Civil Aeronautics Board, Handbook of Airline Statistics, 1969 and 1973 (Washington, DC), Part III, tables 2, 4, 7, and 13. 1980: Civil Aeronautics Board, Air Carrier Financial Statistics, December 1981 (Washington, DC), pp. 2, 5, 46, and 86. 1990-2004: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (pre-1995, U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration), Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual December issue), pp. 2, 3, 10, 16, 23, and similar pages in earlier editions.

5 1960-1970: Civil Aeronautics Board, Handbook of Airline Statistics, 1969 and 1973 (Washington, DC), Part III, tables 2, 4, 7, and 13. 1980: Civil Aeronautics Board, Air Carrier Financial Statistics, December 1981 (Washington, DC), pp. 3, 6, 85, and 115. 1990-2004: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (pre-1995, U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration), Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual December issue), pp. 2, 4, 11, 17, 24, 27, and similar pages in earlier editions.

6 Passenger Revenue: 1960-1970: Civil Aeronautics Board, Handbook of Airline Statistics, 1969 and 1973 (Washington, DC). 1980: Civil Aeronautics Board, Air Carrier Financial Statistics, December 1981 (Washington, DC). 1990-2003: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (pre-1995, U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration), Air Carrier Financial Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual December issue), p. 1 and similar pages in earlier editions. Revenue Passenger Miles / Revenue Passenger Enplanements: 1960-1970: Civil Aeronautics Board, Handbook of Airline Statistics, 1969 and 1973 (Washington, DC), Part III. 1980: Civil Aeronautics Board, Air Carrier Financial Statistics, December 1981 (Washington, DC). 1990-2003: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (pre-1995, U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration), Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual December issue), p. 3 and similar pages in earlier editions.

7 1960-70: U.S. Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Report of Passenger Travel Between the U.S. and Foreign Countries, 1960, 1970 (Washington, DC). 1980-2003: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S. International Air Travel Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables IIa and IId.

8 National Transportation Safety Board, Internet site http://www.ntsb.gov/aviation/stats.htm as of June 2004 and personal communication.