Table 1-64: Travel Time Index

Table 1-64: Travel Time Index

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Population group Urban area 1982 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Points change
Short-term 1998-2003
Points change
Long-term 1982-2003
Points Ranka Points Ranka
Medium Akron, OH 1.02 1.02 1.04 1.05 1.05 (R) 1.06 1.07 1.06 1.09 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.10 1.10 1.09 1.09 -2 76 7 67
Medium Albany-Schenectady, NY (R) 1.02 1.02 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08 3 32 6 70
Medium Albuquerque, NM 1.04 1.06 1.10 1.11 1.13 1.14 1.18 1.21 1.23 1.24 1.26 (R) 1.24 (R) 1.21 (R) 1.20 (R) 1.17 1.17 -9 85 13 46
Medium Allentown-Bethlehem, PA-NJ 1.06 1.08 1.11 1.12 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.13 (R) 1.15 1.15 1.15 (R) 1.14 (R) 1.15 (R) 1.15 1.15 1.14 -1 70 8 62
Small Anchorage, AK 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1 54 1 84
Very large Atlanta, GA 1.08 1.11 1.14 1.13 1.14 1.18 1.24 1.26 1.29 1.31 1.34 1.32 1.35 (R) 1.40 1.42 1.46 12 2 38 3
Medium Austin, TX 1.08 1.10 1.12 1.13 1.12 1.14 1.17 1.20 1.23 1.26 1.24 1.26 1.26 1.30 1.31 1.33 9 9 25 19
Small Bakersfield, CA 1.01 1.01 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.07 1 54 6 70
Large Baltimore, MD 1.07 1.10 1.21 1.20 1.19 1.20 1.22 1.24 1.24 1.26 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.30 (R) 1.35 1.37 12 2 30 13
Small Beaumont, TX 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.07 2 42 4 78
Medium Birmingham, AL 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.17 2 42 12 50
Very large Boston, MA-NH-RI (R) 1.10 (R) 1.14 (R) 1.21 (R) 1.22 (R) 1.25 (R) 1.26 (R) 1.27 (R) 1.25 (R) 1.26 (R) 1.29 (R) 1.30 (R) 1.29 (R) 1.30 (R) 1.30 (R) 1.35 1.34 4 25 24 22
Small Boulder, CO 1.02 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 (R) 1.07 1.08 1.09 (R) 1.08 1.09 1.08 1 54 6 70
Medium Bridgeport-Stamford, CT-NY 1.05 1.08 (R) 1.12 1.13 1.15 1.15 1.17 1.19 1.18 1.21 1.24 1.28 1.27 (R) 1.27 (R) 1.30 1.29 5 20 24 22
Small Brownsville, TX 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.06 -1 70 4 78
Large Buffalo, NY 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.10 5 20 7 67
Small Cape Coral, FL 1.04 1.05 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.17 1.18 4 25 14 39
Small Charleston-North Charleston, SC 1.08 1.10 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.14 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.17 1.18 1.17 1.18 1.20 3 32 12 50
Medium Charlotte, NC-SC 1.07 1.12 1.16 1.18 1.19 1.17 1.16 1.17 1.19 1.23 1.23 1.24 1.26 1.26 1.31 1.31 8 11 24 22
Very large Chicago, IL-IN 1.18 1.27 1.36 1.35 1.35 1.34 1.33 1.38 1.44 1.43 1.47 1.47 1.44 1.47 1.54 1.57 10 8 39 2
Large Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 1.04 1.06 1.12 1.12 1.15 1.15 1.18 1.18 1.20 1.22 1.22 (R) 1.21 (R) 1.23 (R) 1.22 (R) 1.22 1.22 0 63 18 32
Large Cleveland, OH 1.02 1.02 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.10 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.15 1.15 1.13 1.12 1.10 1.09 -6 83 7 67
Small Colorado Springs, CO 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.07 1.08 1.10 1.11 (R) 1.13 (R) 1.16 1.18 (R) 1.21 (R) 1.22 (R) 1.21 1.19 3 32 17 33
Small Columbia, SC 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 (R) 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 2 42 3 81
Large Columbus, OH 1.03 1.04 1.10 1.11 1.13 1.14 1.17 1.18 1.20 (R) 1.21 (R) 1.21 1.22 1.19 1.18 (R) 1.19 1.19 -2 76 16 35
Small Corpus Christi, TX 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.04 1.05 1.04 1.05 1 54 2 82
Very large Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 1.07 1.12 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.22 (R) 1.24 (R) 1.27 1.31 (R) 1.32 (R) 1.33 (R) 1.35 1.36 9 9 29 16
Medium Dayton, OH 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.12 (R) 1.12 (R) 1.12 (R) 1.10 (R) 1.09 1.08 -4 81 5 76
Large Denver-Aurora, CO 1.10 1.13 1.17 1.19 1.21 1.24 1.24 1.30 1.33 1.37 1.39 1.38 (R) 1.41 (R) 1.45 1.40 1.40 1 54 30 13
Very large Detroit, MI 1.12 1.13 1.28 1.29 1.34 1.36 1.33 1.32 1.33 1.35 1.36 1.35 1.33 1.35 1.36 1.38 2 42 26 17
Medium El Paso, TX-NM 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.07 1.07 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.09 1.10 1.14 1.16 1.17 (R) 1.17 1.17 7 14 15 37
Small Eugene, OR 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.09 1.12 1.11 1.10 1.11 4 25 9 56
Medium Fresno, CA 1.05 1.05 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.13 1.13 1.16 1.18 1.20 1.19 1.16 1.15 1.14 -4 81 9 56
Medium Grand Rapids, MI 1.03 1.03 1.07 1.07 1.09 1.11 1.11 1.10 1.11 1.12 (R) 1.16 1.15 1.14 (R) 1.13 (R) 1.13 1.14 -2 76 11 52
Medium Hartford, CT (R) 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.08 (R) 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.11 0 63 8 62
Medium Honolulu, HI 1.10 1.12 1.21 1.20 1.22 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.23 1.20 1.21 1.21 1.19 1.19 1.18 1.19 -2 76 9 56
Very large Houston, TX 1.28 1.39 1.31 1.25 (R) 1.23 1.24 (R) 1.27 (R) 1.28 (R) 1.32 (R) 1.35 (R) 1.34 (R) 1.37 1.36 (R) 1.38 (R) 1.41 1.42 8 11 14 39
Large Indianapolis, IN 1.03 1.03 1.06 1.08 1.10 1.16 1.20 1.22 1.25 1.26 1.22 1.23 1.24 (R) 1.26 1.24 1.24 2 42 21 26
Medium Jacksonville, FL 1.04 1.05 1.11 1.12 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.14 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.18 4 25 14 39
Large Kansas City, MO-KS 1.01 1.02 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.06 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.11 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.11 2 42 10 54
Small Laredo, TX 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.07 1.08 1 54 5 76
Large Las Vegas, NV 1.07 1.10 1.23 1.25 1.24 1.24 1.28 1.27 1.30 1.33 1.33 1.34 1.34 1.35 (R) 1.36 1.39 6 16 32 9
Small Little Rock, AK 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.07 1.06 1.06 1 54 4 78
Very large Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA 1.30 1.35 1.80 1.79 1.76 1.73 1.64 1.72 1.78 1.77 1.83 1.80 1.76 (R) 1.78 1.77 1.75 -8 84 45 1
Medium Louisville, KY-IN 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.10 1.13 1.15 1.16 1.16 1.19 1.21 1.22 1.24 (R) 1.23 1.22 1.24 1.24 2 42 15 37
Medium Memphis, TN-MS-AR 1.03 1.04 1.09 1.09 1.11 1.11 1.14 1.17 1.18 (R) 1.19 (R) 1.19 1.19 (R) 1.19 (R) 1.20 1.22 1.22 3 32 19 28
Very Large Miami, FL 1.09 1.11 1.20 1.21 1.26 1.26 1.26 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.34 1.35 1.37 1.40 1.42 11 6 33 5
Large Milwaukee, WI 1.05 1.07 1.12 1.12 1.15 1.17 1.16 1.19 1.20 1.20 1.22 1.25 (R) 1.24 (R) 1.23 (R) 1.23 1.21 -1 70 16 35
Large Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN 1.03 1.06 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.20 1.22 1.23 1.30 1.32 1.35 1.32 1.34 1.34 1.34 2 42 31 11
Medium Nashville-Davidson, TN 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.16 1.15 (R) 1.17 1.18 (R) 1.17 1.19 1.18 3 32 11 52
Medium New Haven, CT 1.03 (R) 1.03 (R) 1.05 (R) 1.05 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.07 1.09 1.12 1.13 1.14 (R) 1.15 1.14 1.13 1 54 10 54
Large New Orleans, LA 1.10 1.14 1.16 1.19 1.18 1.16 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.18 1.17 1.18 1.19 0 63 9 56
Very large New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT 1.13 1.16 1.31 1.28 1.27 1.28 1.31 1.33 1.34 1.36 1.36 1.40 1.38 1.38 1.40 1.39 3 32 26 17
Large Oklahoma City, OK 1.02 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.06 1.07 1.09 1.09 1.11 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.10 1 54 8 62
Medium Omaha, NE-IA 1.04 1.06 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.10 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 4 25 14 39
Large Orlando, FL 1.09 1.15 1.16 1.19 1.19 1.21 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.24 1.27 1.27 1.28 (R) 1.30 (R) 1.31 1.30 3 32 21 26
Medium Oxnard-Ventura, CA 1.04 1.07 1.10 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.14 (R) 1.15 1.19 1.19 1.21 (R) 1.21 1.23 8 11 19 28
Small Pensacola, FL-AL 1.03 1.04 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.11 1.10 1.11 1.10 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.12 1.12 1.12 0 63 9 56
Very large Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD 1.13 1.14 1.19 1.20 1.22 1.20 1.21 (R) 1.24 (R) 1.27 (R) 1.27 1.33 (R) 1.33 (R) 1.31 1.35 1.35 1.32 -1 70 19 28
Very large Phoenix, AZ 1.13 1.15 1.22 1.24 1.27 1.27 1.28 1.24 1.30 1.33 1.31 1.38 1.38 1.40 1.35 1.35 4 25 22 25
Large Pittsburgh, PA 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 -1 70 2 82
Large Portland, OR-WA 1.05 1.07 1.16 1.17 1.20 1.24 1.25 1.28 1.31 1.35 1.34 1.37 1.37 1.39 1.38 1.37 3 32 32 9
Large Providence, RI-MA 1.05 1.06 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.12 1.14 (R) 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 (R) 1.15 (R) 1.18 1.19 6 16 14 39
Medium Raleigh-Durham, NC 1.05 1.07 (R) 1.11 1.09 (R) 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.13 1.15 1.15 (R) 1.14 1.16 1.19 1.18 1.19 4 25 14 39
Medium Richmond, VA 1.03 1.03 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.11 1.11 (R) 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.09 0 63 6 70
Large Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 1.04 1.08 1.24 1.27 1.29 1.27 1.23 1.26 1.28 1.27 1.31 1.33 1.33 1.32 (R) 1.34 1.37 6 16 33 5
Medium Rochester, NY 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.07 2 42 6 70
Large Sacramento, CA 1.07 1.09 1.20 1.20 1.18 1.19 1.22 1.21 1.24 1.23 (R) 1.25 (R) 1.27 (R) 1.29 (R) 1.32 (R) 1.34 1.37 12 2 30 13
Small Salem, OR 1.02 1.02 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.11 1.11 3 32 9 56
Medium Salt Lake City, UT 1.03 1.05 1.08 1.10 1.13 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.17 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 (R) 1.23 (R) 1.26 1.28 12 2 25 19
Large San Antonio, TX 1.05 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.07 1.08 1.12 1.12 1.13 1.16 1.22 1.24 1.22 1.23 1.22 6 16 17 33
Large San Diego, CA 1.06 1.09 1.24 1.22 1.23 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.23 1.25 1.26 1.32 1.32 1.32 (R) 1.40 1.41 15 1 35 4
Very large San Francisco-Oakland, CA 1.21 1.36 1.50 1.42 1.41 1.44 1.40 1.45 1.45 1.42 1.47 1.49 1.54 1.54 1.55 1.54 7 14 33 5
Large San Jose, CA 1.18 1.30 1.44 1.41 1.34 1.34 1.33 1.34 1.33 1.30 1.34 1.39 1.42 1.43 1.39 1.37 3 32 19 28
Medium Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.16 1.18 1.19 (R) 1.16 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.24 1.22 1.22 1.25 1.25 5 20 13 46
Large Seattle, WA 1.07 1.13 1.29 1.33 (R) 1.35 1.35 1.34 1.36 1.36 1.40 1.39 (R) 1.40 1.35 1.35 (R) 1.36 1.38 -1 70 31 11
Small Spokane, WA 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.08 1.08 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.08 0 63 6 70
Medium Springfield, MA-CT 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.06 1.07 1.06 0 63 1 84
Large St. Louis, MO-IL 1.09 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.18 1.19 1.21 1.21 1.24 (R) 1.24 (R) 1.25 1.25 (R) 1.23 1.24 1.22 -2 76 13 46
Large Tampa-St. Petersburg, FL 1.19 1.21 1.26 1.29 1.29 1.30 1.32 1.32 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.29 1.27 1.31 1.31 1.33 5 20 14 39
Medium Toledo, OH-MI 1.02 1.02 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.06 (R) 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.10 2 42 8 62
Medium Tucson, AZ 1.06 1.06 1.11 1.13 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.19 (R) 1.20 (R) 1.20 1.19 (R) 1.22 (R) 1.28 1.31 11 6 25 19
Medium Tulsa, OK 1.02 1.03 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 (R) 1.08 1.09 (R) 1.10 (R) 1.10 (R) 1.10 1.10 2 42 8 62
Large Virginia Beach, VA 1.08 1.11 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.13 1.15 1.16 1.18 1.18 1.19 1.19 1.16 1.18 (R) 1.20 1.21 2 42 13 46
Very large Washington, DC-VA-MD 1.18 1.23 1.33 1.35 1.37 1.38 1.37 1.40 1.44 1.43 1.46 1.47 1.44 1.46 1.50 1.51 5 20 33 5
NA 85-Area Average 1.12 1.16 1.28 1.27 1.28 1.28 1.27 1.29 1.31 1.32 1.34 1.35 1.34 1.35 1.37 1.37 3 NA 25 NA
NA Very Large Area Average (R) 1.18 (R) 1.23 (R) 1.40 (R) 1.39 (R) 1.39 (R) 1.38 (R) 1.37 1.40 (R) 1.43 (R) 1.43 (R) 1.46 (R) 1.46 (R) 1.45 (R) 1.47 (R) 1.49 1.48 2 NA 30 NA
NA Large Area Average 1.07 1.10 1.17 1.18 (R) 1.18 (R) 1.19 (R) 1.20 (R) 1.21 (R) 1.23 (R) 1.24 (R) 1.25 (R) 1.26 (R) 1.26 (R) 1.27 (R) 1.28 1.28 3 NA 21 NA
NA Medium Area Average 1.05 1.06 1.09 (R) 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.18 3 NA 13 NA
NA Small Area Average (R) 1.03 1.04 (R) 1.05 1.06 (R) 1.06 (R) 1.06 (R) 1.06 1.07 (R) 1.07 1.08 (R) 1.08 (R) 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 2 NA 7 NA

KEY: NA = not applicable; R = revised.

Very large urban areas - over 3 million population.

Large urban areas - over 1 million and less than 3 million population.

Medium urban areas - over 500,000 and less than 1 million population.

Small urban areas - less than 500,000 population.

a Rank is based on the calculated point change with the highest number corresponding to a rank of 1.

NOTE

The Travel Time Index (TTI) is the ratio of peak period travel time to free flow travel time. The TTI expresses the average amount of extra time it takes to travel in the peak relative to free-flow travel. A TTI of 1.3, for example, indicates a 20-minute free-flow trip will take 26 minutes during the peak travel time periods, a 6-minute (30 percent) travel time penalty.

SOURCE

Texas Transportation Institute, The 2005 Annual Urban Mobility Report (College Station, TX: 2005), Internet site http://mobility.tamu.edu as of June 10, 2005.