Table 1-35M: Average Length of Haul, Domestic Freight and Passenger Modes

Table 1-35M: Average Length of Haul, Domestic Freight and Passenger Modes

(Kilometers)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Freight                                        
Air carrier 1,534 1,518 1,632 1,741 1,693 1,862 2,235 2,166 2,239 2,168 1,965 1,867 1,901 1,733 1,735 1,611 1,580 1,566 U U
Trucka 438 417 423 460 584 589 629 641 660 655 631 669 686 700 711 737 761 781 U U
Class I rail 742 810 829 870 991 1,069 1,168 1,209 1,227 1,278 1,315 1,356 1,355 1,369 1,344 1,344 1,357 1,382 1,373 1,388
Coastwise (water) 2,408 2,416 2,429 2,192 3,082 3,174 2,582 2,744 2,835 2,656 2,658 2,658 2,456 2,140 2,030 2,059 2,013 1,976 1,961 2,009
Lakewise (water) 840 795 814 853 863 843 890 861 836 827 817 827 817 815 812 806 814 818 851 852
Internal (water) 454 478 531 576 652 700 753 777 771 752 775 795 768 750 759 785 775 766 777 735
Intraport (water) U U U 26 27 24 20 21 20 20 25 26 27 25 25 25 25 24 24 25
Crude (oil pipeline) 523 515 483 1,019 1,402 1,250 1,307 1,323 1,336 1,271 1,252 1,283 1,254 1,257 1,234 1,233 U U U U
Petroleum products (oil pipeline) 433 539 575 830 666 629 623 610 610 653 666 647 665 665 676 673 U U U U
Passenger                                        
Air carrier, domestic, scheduled 938 988 1,091 1,123 1,184 1,220 1,292 1,297 1,297 1,286 1,267 1,273 1,291 1,315 1,307 1,326 1,340 1,356 1,368 1,355
Bus, intercity 127 151 171 182 201 195 227 230 219 222 222 225 230 232 232 230 230 U U U
Commuter rail 33 34 36 37 37 38 35 37 37 35 34 39 39 37 37 37 37 37 37 38
Amtrakb N N N 380 348 372 439 459 460 451 449 431 412 412 404 399 393 381 376 372

KEY: N = data do not exist; U = data are not available.

a Total Class I and Class II motor carriers of freight (less-than-truckload, specialized carrier for truckload, and others).

b Amtrak began operations in 1971. Data are reported for fiscal years.

NOTES

Average length of haul for freight is calculated by dividing ton-miles in table 1-46 by estimates of tonnage from the various data sources. The calculation of average length of haul for passenger trips varies by mode: for air carrier it is calculated by dividing revenue passenger-miles by revenue passenger enplanements; for commuter rail, intercity bus, and Amtrak it is calculated by dividing passenger-miles by number of passengers. These numbers were then converted to kilometers.

1.609344 kilometers = 1 mile.

SOURCES

Freight:

Air carrier, truck:

Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation In America, 2002 (Washington, DC: 2002), p. 65.

Class I rail:

Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: 2004), p. 36.

Water:

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Part 5 (New Orleans, LA: Annual issues), section 1, table 1-4 .

Oil pipeline:

1960-70: Transportation Policy Associates, Washington, DC, personal communication.

1975-99: Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation in America, 2002 (Washington, DC: 2002), p. 65.

Passenger:

Air carrier:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), p. 3, line 34.

Intercity bus:

Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation in America, 2002 (Washington, DC: 2002), p. 64.

Commuter Rail:

1960-2000: Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., Transportation in America, 2002 (Washington, DC: 2002), p. 64.

2001-03: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 19 and similar tables in earlier editions.

Amtrak:

1970-85: Amtrak, corporate communication, Jan. 26, 1999.

1990-2002: Amtrak, Amtrak Annual Report (Washington, DC: 2003), Statistical Appendix.

2003: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: 2004), p. 77.