Table 2-3: Transportation Accidents by Mode

Table 2-3: Transportation Accidents by Mode

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Air 4,883 5,279 4,767 4,232 3,818 2,935 2,388 2,334 2,228 2,172 2,140 2,179 2,046 1,991 2,040 2,043 1,985 1,852 1,823 1,869 1,717 1,781 (R) 1,607 1,722
U.S. air carriera 90 83 55 37 19 21 24 26 18 23 23 36 37 49 50 51 56 46 41 54 30 40 (R) 33 26
Commuter carrierb N N N 48 38 18 15 23 23 16 10 12 11 16 8 13 12 7 7 2 4 6 3 3
On-demand air taxic N N N 152 171 157 107 88 76 69 85 75 90 82 77 74 80 72 60 (R) 73 66 (R) 65 (R) 53 62
General aviationd 4,793 5,196 4,712 3,995 3,590 2,739 2,242 2,197 2,111 2,064 2,022 2,056 1,908 1,844 1,905 1,905 1,837 1,727 1,715 (R) 1,740 1,617 (R) 1,670 (R) 1,518 1,631
Highway, total crashese N N N N N N 6,471,000 6,117,000 6,000,000 6,106,000 6,496,000 6,699,000 6,770,000 6,624,000 6,335,000 6,279,000 6,394,000 6,323,000 6,316,000 6,328,000 6,181,000 6,159,000 5,973,000 U
Passenger car N N N N N N 5,560,592 5,178,450 5,042,203 5,040,116 5,401,164 5,593,685 5,598,699 5,423,286 5,146,124 4,915,734 4,926,243 4,831,842 4,802,056 4,746,620 4,557,453 4,498,869 4,341,688 U
Motorcycle N N N N N N 103,114 105,030 72,177 74,565 68,752 66,354 66,224 61,451 54,477 57,322 68,783 73,342 76,004 79,131 85,557 100,686 101,474 U
Truckf, light N N N N N N 2,152,486 2,200,134 2,191,171 2,407,212 2,573,701 2,749,596 2,880,782 2,900,896 2,866,729 3,079,617 3,207,738 3,254,105 3,272,326 3,345,367 3,370,062 3,381,985 3,355,291 U
Truckf, large N N N N N N 371,801 318,637 362,807 383,220 444,697 362,883 378,335 421,377 391,807 452,444 437,861 409,372 416,477 436,161 399,156 423,016 367,920 U
Bus N N N N N N 60,412 56,285 49,705 51,353 55,818 58,847 57,185 53,376 53,385 62,591 55,594 54,264 57,958 57,674 52,148 50,427 51,554 U
Railroad, totalg N N 11,654 20,117 18,817 10,194 8,594 8,046 7,269 7,503 7,483 7,092 6,700 6,262 6,083 6,257 6,485 6,260 5,815 (R) 5,994 (R) 6,459 (R) 6,319 (R) 5,905 5,399
Highway-rail grade crossingh 3,195 3,820 3,559 12,076 10,612 6,919 5,715 5,388 4,910 4,892 4,979 4,633 4,257 3,865 3,508 3,489 3,502 3,237 3,077 2,977 (R) 3,079 (R) 3,058 (R) 2,937 2,752
Railroadi N N 8,095 8,041 8,205 3,275 2,879 2,658 2,359 2,611 2,504 2,459 2,443 2,397 2,575 2,768 2,983 3,023 2,738 (R) 3,017 (R) 3,380 (R) 3,261 (R) 2,968 2,647
Transit, totalj N N N N N N 58,002 46,467 36,380 30,559 29,972 25,683 25,166 24,924 23,937 23,310 24,261 23,891 13,968 7,793 7,842 8,151 8,851 9,398
Highway-rail grade crossingk N N N N N N N N N N N 127 134 119 106 140 148 101 190 125 178 148 141 174
Transitl N N N N N N N N N N N 25,556 25,032 24,805 23,831 23,170 24,113 23,790 13,778 7,668 7,664 8,003 8,710 9,224
Waterborne, total N N 6,385 9,618 10,137 9,676 10,024 8,795 11,631 12,461 13,649 13,368 13,286 13,551 13,828 13,457 13,143 11,377 11,713 10,601 9,866 9,946 10,367 U
Vessel-relatedm N N 2,582 3,310 4,624 3,439 3,613 2,222 5,583 6,126 6,743 5,349 5,260 5,504 5,767 5,526 5,403 4,958 6,008 5,163 4,962 4,977 5,400 U
Recreational boating 2,738 3,752 3,803 6,308 5,513 6,237 6,411 6,573 6,048 6,335 6,906 8,019 8,026 8,047 8,061 7,931 7,740 6,419 5,705 5,438 4,904 4,969 4,967 5,191
Pipeline, total N N 1,428 1,592 1,770 517 378 449 389 445 467 349 381 346 389 339 380 341 331 370 443 (R) 490 (R) 407 402
Hazardous liquid pipeline N N 351 254 246 183 180 216 212 229 245 188 194 171 153 167 146 130 147 131 144 138 (R) 120 116
Gas pipeline N N 1,077 1,338 1,524 334 198 233 177 216 222 161 187 175 236 172 234 211 184 239 299 (R) 352 (R) 287 286

Key: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a Carriers operating under 14 CFR 121, all scheduled and nonscheduled service. Since Mar. 20, 1997, 14 CFR 121 includes only aircraft with 10 or more seats formerly operated under 14 CFR 135. This change makes it difficult to compare pre-1997 data for 14 CFR 121 and 14 CFR 135 with more recent years' data.

b All scheduled service operating under 14 CFR 135. Since Mar. 20, 1997, 14 CFR 121 includes only aircraft with 10 or more seats formerly operated under 14 CFR 135. This change makes it difficult to compare pre-1997 data for 14 CFR 121 and 14 CFR 135 with more recent years' data.

c Nonscheduled service operating under 14 CFR 135.

d All operations other than those operating under 14 CFR 121 and 14 CFR 135.

e The U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration uses the term "crash" instead of accident in its highway safety data. Highway crashes often involve more than one motor vehicle, hence "total highway crashes" is smaller than the sum of the components. Estimates of highway crashes are rounded to the nearest thousand in the source document.

f Large trucks are defined as trucks over 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating, including single-unit trucks and truck tractors. Light trucks are defined as trucks of 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating or less, including pickups, vans, truck-based station wagons, and utility vehicles.

g Includes Amtrak. Accidents and incidents resulting from freight and passenger rail operations including commuter rail. Railroad accident data for 1970 and before are not comparable with post-1970 data due to a change in the reporting system.

h Accidents and incidents occurring at highway-rail crossings resulting from freight and passenger rail operations including commuter rail. Data not comparable after 1970 due to change in reporting system. Most highway-rail grade crossing accidents are also counted under highway.

i Train accidents only.

j Accident figures include collisions with vehicles, objects, and people, derailments / vehicles going off the road. Accident figures do not include fires and personal casualties. The drop in the number of accidents in 2002 is due largely to a change in definitions by the Federal Transit Administration, particularly the definition of injuries. Only injuries requiring immediate medical treatment away from the scene now qualify as reportable. Previously, any injury was reportable. Directly Operated (DO) modes only.

k Accidents occurring at highway-rail grade crossings resulting from operations of public transit rail modes including commuter rail. Data for light rail crossings are: 1995 (98); 1996 (97); 1997 (66); 1998 (66); 1999 (103); 2000 (106); 2001 (54); 2002 (112); 2003 (66); 2004 (107).

l Accidents occurring at highway-rail grade crossings resulting from operations of public transit rail modes excluding commuter rail.

m 1992-97 data come from the Marine Safety Management Information System. Between 1998 and 2001 the U.S. Coast Guard phased in a new computer system to track safety data, the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement System. During that period data come from combining entries in the Marine Safety Management Information System with entries in the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement System. Data for 2002 and 2003 come from the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement System. Data for prior years come from other sources and may not be directly comparable.

NOTES

The motor vehicle crash data in this table come from the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations' General Estimates System (GES), which began operation in 1988. GES data are obtained from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all police-reported crashes. The GES sample includes only crashes where a police accident report was completed and the crash resulted in property damage, injury, or death. The resulting figures do not take into account crashes that were not reported to the police or did not result in property damage.

The Federal Railroad Administration defines a grade crossing as a location where a public highway, road, street, or private roadway, including associated sidewalks and pathways, crosses one or more railroad tracks at grade. The Federal Transit Administration defines two types of grade crossings: (1) At grade, mixed, and cross traffic crossings, meaning railway right-of-way over which other traffic moving in the same direction or other cross directions may pass. This includes city street right-of-way; (2) At grade with cross traffic crossings, meaning railway right-of-way over which no other traffic may pass, except to cross at grade-level crossings. This can include median strip rights-of-way with grade level crossings at intersecting streets.

SOURCES

Air:

Air carrier:

1960: National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1967 (Washington, DC: December 1968).

1965-70: Ibid., Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1975, NTSB/ARC-77/1 (Washington, DC: January 1977).

1975: Ibid., Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1983, NTSB/ARC-87/01 (Washington, DC: February 1987), table 18.

1980: Ibid., Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1981, NTSB/ARC-85/01 (Washington, DC: February 1985), tables 2 and 16.

1985-2006: Ibid., personal communication, Sept. 4, 2007.

2007: National Transportation Safety Board, Aviation Accident Statistics, Table 5, available at http://www.ntsb.gov/aviation/Stats.htm, as of August 2008.

Commuter air carrier:

1975-80: National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1980, NTSB/ARC-83/01 (Washington, DC: January 1983), tables 26 and 40.

1985-2006: Ibid., personal communication, Sept. 4, 2007.

2007: National Transportation Safety Board, Aviation Accident Statistics, Table 8, available at http://www.ntsb.gov/aviation/Stats.htm, as of August 2008.

On-demand air taxi:

1975-80: National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 1981, NTSB/ARC-85/01 (Washington, DC: February 1985), table 61.

1985-2006: Ibid., personal communication, Sept. 4, 2007.

2007: National Transportation Safety Board, Aviation Accident Statistics, Table 9, available at http://www.ntsb.gov/aviation/Stats.htm, as of August 2008.

General aviation:

1960-70: National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: General Aviation, Calendar Year 1970, NTSB/ARG-74/1 (Washington, DC: April 1974), table 117.

1975-80: Ibid., Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: General Aviation, Calendar Year 1985, NTSB/ARG-87/03 (Washington, DC: October 1987), table 21.

1985-2006: Ibid., personal communication, Sept. 4, 2007.

2007: National Transportation Safety Board, Aviation Accident Statistics, Table 10, available at http://www.ntsb.gov/aviation/Stats.htm, as of August 2008.

Highway:

U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, Traffic Safety Facts (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table 1, available at http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/cats/index.aspx as of October 2008.

Passenger car, motorcycle, light truck, large truck, and bus:

U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, Fatality Analysis Reporting System Database and General Estimates System Database.

Rail:

Highway-rail grade crossings:

1960-70: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Policy and Program Development, Rail-Highway Grade-Crossing Accidents (Washington, DC: Annual issues).

1975-80: Ibid., Office of Policy and Program Development, personal communication.

1985-90: Ibid., Rail-Highway Crossing Accident/Incident and Inventory Bulletin (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table S.

1991-99: Ibid., Interim Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2002 (Washington, DC: August 2003), table 1-1.

2000-07: Ibid., available at http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety/Default.asp as of Dec. 2, 2005.

Railroad:

1970-90: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Policy and Program Development, Accident/Incident Bulletin (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 4.

1991-99: Ibid., Interim Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2002 (Washington, DC: August 2003), table 1-1.

2000-2007: Ibid., available at http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety/Default.asp as of November 2008.

Transit:

Highway-rail grade crossings:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, Office of Program Management, personal communication as of Sept. 4, 2007.

1990-92: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, Safety Management Information Statistics 2000 (Washington, DC: 2000), pp. 51-54 and personal communication, July 28, 2003.

1993-2005: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, Transit Safety and Security Statistics and Analysis Annual Report (Washington, DC: Annual issues) available at http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/data/SAMIS.asp as of Sept. 4, 2007.

2006-2007: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Volpe Center, Transit Safety and Security Statistics and Analysis Program, personal communication, Oct. 20, 2008.

Water:

Vessel-related:

1970-91: U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Investigations and Analysis, Compliance Analysis Division, personal communication, Apr. 13, 1999.

1992-2006: U.S Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard, Data Administration Division (G-MRI-1), personal communication, June 8, 2005.

Recreational boating:

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Boating Safety, Boating Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), available at http://www.uscgboating.org/statistics/accident_stats.htm as of September 4, 2007.

Hazardous liquid and gas pipeline:

1970-2007: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Office of Pipeline Safety, Accident and Incident Summary Statistics by Year, available at http://ops.dot.gov as of November 2008.