Table 4-20M: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes

Table 4-20M: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes

(Kilojoule per passenger-kilometer)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Air, certificated carrier                                              
Domestic operations 5,659 6,633 6,677 5,078 3,764 3,308 3,233 3,062 2,992 2,988 2,913 2,873 2,742 2,731 2,703 2,655 2,546 2,550 2,358 (R) 2,292 (R) 2,235 (R) 2,112 2,031
International operations 6,031 6,748 7,202 5,550 2,845 3,345 2,980 3,022 2,792 2,687 2,718 2,736 2,693 2,733 2,804 2,703 2,513 2,599 2,570 (R) 2,739 (R) 2,549 (R) 2,500 2,419
Highwaya                                              
Passenger car 2,947 2,921 3,174 3,109 2,850 2,799 2,498 2,395 2,428 2,481 2,472 2,439 2,418 2,397 2,384 2,407 2,353 2,358 2,360 (R) 2,341 2,301 (R) 2,350 2,311
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle N N 4,465 4,308 3,743 3,259 2,976 2,804 2,790 2,803 2,849 2,975 2,977 2,992 2,995 3,024 2,956 2,612 2,702 (R) 2,918 2,918 (R) 2,673 2,633
Motorcycle b b 1,639 1,543 1,393 1,243 1,460 1,257 1,305 1,352 1,400 1,491 1,489 1,490 1,490 1,490 1,490 1,343 1,291 1,291 1,291 (R) 1,170 1,150
Transit motor bus N N N N 1,798 2,222 2,441 2,470 2,647 2,586 2,728 2,724 2,751 2,772 2,709 2,651 2,719 2,424 2,327 2,304 (R) 2,341 (R) 2,224 2,138
Amtrak N N N 1,562 1,408 1,370 1,354 1,297 1,334 1,326 1,269 1,205 1,411 1,442 1,402 1,381 1,399 U U U U U U

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are not available.

a For 1995 and subsequent years, highway passenger-miles were taken directly from Highway Statistics rather than derived from vehicle-miles and average occupancy, as is the case for 1960-1994. Passenger-miles were then converted to passenger-kilometers.

b Included in passenger car.

NOTES

To calculate total joules, multiply fuel consumed (see tables 4-21, 4-22, 4-24, 4-25) by 37,626,700 joules/liter for air carrier, 34,839,537 joules/liter for passenger car, other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle, and motorcycle, and 38,657,950 joules/liter for transit motor bus and Amtrak diesel consumption; and 3,599,851 joules/KwH for Amtrak electric consumption

1.609344 kilometers = 1 mile.

SOURCES

Air:

Certificated air carriers:

Passenger-kilometers:

1960-80: Air Transport Association, Internet site http://www.airlines.org as of Aug. 30, 2004.

1985-2006: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington DC: Annual December issues).

Fuel consumed:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html as of Mar. 27, 2008.

Highway:

Passenger car:

1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2006: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle:

1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2006: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Motorcycle:

1970-85: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1990-2006: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.

Transit motor bus:

American Public Transportation Association, 2008 Public Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables 2 and 28, and similar tables in earlier editions.

Amtrak:

Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communication April 22, 2008.