|Engine type and pollutant||1970-73||1974-78||1979-83||1984||1985-86||1987||1988-89||1990||1991-93||1994-97||1998-2003||2004||2005-2006||2007||2008+|
|HC + NOx||e||16||10||10||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e|
|NOx + NMHC||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||1.0||1.0||e|
|HC + NOx||e||16||10||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e|
|NOx + NMHC||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||e||2.4g||2.4g||e||e|
|Smoke opacity (acceleration / lugging / peak)a||40/20e||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50||20/15/50|
|Weight criteria for heavy heavy-duty trucksb||GVWR over 6,000 lbs||GVWR over 6,000 lbs||GVWR over 8,500 lbs||GVWR over 8,500 lbs||GVWR over 8,500 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs||GVWR over 14,000 lbs|
|Test procedure, gasolinec||13-mode steady-state||13-mode steady-state||13-mode steady-state||13-mode steady-state||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient||MVMA transient|
|Test procedure, dieselc||13-mode steady-state||13-mode steady-state||13-mode steady-state||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient||EPA transient|
|Useful life (gasoline)d||5 years/50,000 miles||5 years/50,000 miles||5 years/50,000 miles||5 years/50,000 miles||8 years/110,000 miles||8 years/110,000 miles||8 years/110,000 miles||8 years/110,000 miles||8 years/110,000 miles||8 years/110,000 miles||8 years/110,000 miles||10 years/110,000 miles||10 years/110,000 miles||10 years/110,000 miles||10 years/110,000 miles|
KEY: CO = carbon monoxide; HC = hydrocarbon; NOx = nitrogen oxides; NMHC = nonmethane hydrocarbons.
a Smoke opacity is expressed in percentage for acceleration, lugging, and peak modes (acceleration/lugging/peak). Lugging is when a vehicle is carrying a load.
b Gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) is the maximum design loaded weight.
c Several testing procedures have been used during the course of exhaust emissions control. A steady-state 9-mode test procedure (13-mode for diesel) was used for 1970-83 standards. For 1984, either the steady-state tests or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transient test procedure could be used. For diesels, the EPA transient test was required from 1985 to the present. For gasoline-powered vehicles, either the EPA or the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) transient test procedure could be used during 1985-86, and the MVMA procedure was required thereafter.
d Emissions standards apply to the useful life of the vehicle. Useful life was 5 years/50,000 miles through 1983 and became 8 years/110,000 miles beginning in model year 1985. 1984 was a transitional year in which vehicles could meet the older standard (and test procedure) or the newer one. Useful life requirement for gasoline-powered trucks meeting NOx standards for 1998 and after is 10 years/110,000 miles. Starting in 2004, the useful life will be 10 years/110,000 miles. The useful life requirements for heavy-duty diesel truck standards are more complex and vary by vehicle weight, pollutant, test procedure, and year. Consult the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for further information.
e No standard set.
f Although emissions standards for HC and CO were in effect for these years, they were not measured in grams per brake horsepower-hour and are, therefore, incompatible with this table.
g Vehicles can meet a NMHC + NOx standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h, given they meet a NMHC standard of no more than 0.5 g/bhp-h.
Tables 4-32a and 4-32b are identical for heavy-duty diesel engines.
40 CFR 86, Electronic Code of Federal Regulations, internet site at http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/cfrhtml 00/Title 40/40cfr86 00.html as of Oct. 9, 2001.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, personnal communication, Oct. 2001.