Table 4-20M: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes

Table 4-20M: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes

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(Kilojoule per passenger-kilometer)

  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 (R) 2006 2007 2008
Air, certificated carrier                                                  
Domestic operations 5,659 6,633 6,677 5,078 3,764 3,308 3,233 3,062 2,992 2,988 2,913 2,873 2,742 2,731 2,703 2,655 2,546 (R) 2,523 (R) 2,366 2,292 2,235 (R) 2,119 2,060 1,993 1,922
International operations 6,031 6,748 7,202 5,550 2,845 3,345 2,980 3,022 2,792 2,687 2,718 2,736 2,693 2,733 2,804 2,703 2,513 (R) 2,648 (R) 2,615 2,739 2,549 (R) 2,507 2,410 2,346 2,277
Highwaya                                                  
Passenger car 2,947 2,921 3,174 3,109 2,850 2,799 2,498 2,395 2,428 2,481 2,472 2,439 2,418 2,397 2,384 2,407 2,353 2,358 2,360 2,340 2,301 2,350 2,301 2,307 2,295
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle N N 4,465 4,308 3,743 3,259 2,976 2,804 2,790 2,803 2,849 2,975 2,977 2,992 2,995 3,024 2,956 2,612 2,702 2,919 2,918 2,673 2,650 2,628 2,609
Motorcycleb U U 1,639 1,543 1,393 1,243 1,460 1,257 1,305 1,352 1,400 1,491 1,489 1,490 1,490 1,490 1,490 1,343 1,291 1,291 1,291 1,170 1,184 1,148 1,142
Transit motor bus N N N N 1,798 2,222 2,441 2,470 2,647 2,586 2,728 2,724 (R) 2,526 (R) 2,413 (R) 2,390 (R) 2,325 (R) 2,372 (R) 2,289 (R) 2,169 (R) 2,099 (R) 2,124 (R) 1,760 1,889 1,817 1,741
Amtrak N N N 1,562 1,408 1,369 1,354 1,296 (R) 1,327 (R) 1,323 (R) 1,246 (R) 1,322 (R) 1,443 (R) 1,500 (R) 1,479 (R) 1,537 (R) 1,762 (R) 1,764 1,663 1,406 1,356 1,327 1,277 1,196 1,144

KEY: N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are unavailable.

a For 1995 and subsequent years, highway passenger-miles were taken directly from Highway Statistics rather than derived from vehicle-miles and average occupancy, as is the case for 1960-1994. Passenger-miles were then converted to passenger-kilometers.

b 1960 and 1965 data are included in passenger car.

NOTES

To calculate total joules, multiply fuel consumed (see tables 4-21, 4-22, 4-24, 4-25) by 37,626,700 joules/liter for air carrier, 34,839,537 joules/liter for passenger car, other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle, and motorcycle, and 38,657,950 joules/liter for transit motor bus and Amtrak diesel consumption; and 3,599,851 joules/KwH for Amtrak electric consumption

Amtrak passenger-miles data for 2000 and earlier years are for fiscal years; and are not be comparable with 2001 and later years which is reported in calendar year.

Transit motor bus data for 1996 and later years are obtained from the National Transit Database and cannot be compared with data for earlier years.

1.609344 kilometers = 1 mile, and 3.785411784 litres = 1 gallon.

SOURCES

Air:

Certificated air carriers:

Passenger-kilometers:

1960-80: Air Transport Association, available at http://www.airlines.org as of Aug. 30, 2004.

1985-2008: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington DC: Annual December issues).

Fuel consumed:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Airline Fuel Cost and Consumption, available at http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html as of Feb. 02, 2010.

Highway:

Passenger car:

1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2008: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss/hsspubs.cfm as of Feb. 03, 2010.

Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle:

1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2008: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss/hsspubs.cfm as of Feb. 03, 2010.

Motorcycle:

1970-85: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2008: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss/hsspubs.cfm as of Feb. 03, 2010.

Transit motor bus:

1980-95: American Public Transportation Association, 2008 Public Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables 2 and 28, and similar tables in earlier editions.

1996-2008: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database (Washington, D.C.: Annual reports), available at http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm as of Feb. 04, 2010

Amtrak:

Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communications, Apr. 21, 2008 and Jan. 07, 2010.