Table 4-20: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Btu per passenger-mile)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (R) 2011 2012
Air, certificated carrier                                                          
Domestic operations 8,633 10,118 10,185 8,532 6,029 4,950 4,767 4,536 4,413 4,457 4,345 4,282 4,096 4,091 3,881 4,009 3,892 3,848 3,608 3,493 3,408 3,232 3,142 3,040 2,936 2,774 2,691 2,597 2,465
International operations 9,199 10,292 10,986 7,547 4,374 4,586 4,207 4,192 3,963 3,861 3,916 3,932 3,893 3,955 3,854 3,952 3,857 4,039 3,984 4,180 3,890 3,817 3,665 3,572 3,473 3,384 3,330 3,519 3,477
Highwaya                                                          
Light duty vehicle, short wheel basebc 4,495 4,455 4,841 4,743 4,348 4,269 3,811 3,654 3,704 3,787 3,771 3,721 3,702 3,657 3,637 3,671 3,589 3,597 3,600 3,570 3,509 3,585 3,510 3,368 3,344 3,823 3,854 3,885 3,861
Light duty vehicle, long wheel basec N N 6,810 6,571 5,709 4,971 4,451 4,277 4,256 4,275 4,345 4,539 4,560 4,563 4,568 4,611 4,509 3,985 4,121 4,452 4,452 4,077 4,042 4,537 4,159 5,411 5,447 5,472 5,463
Motorcycleb U U 2,500 2,354 2,125 1,896 1,990 1,917 1,990 2,063 2,135 2,227 2,250 2,295 2,341 2,205 2,273 2,049 1,969 1,969 1,969 1,784 1,805 2,185 2,315 2,688 2,675 2,669 2,665
Transit motor bus N N N N 2,742 3,389 3,723 3,767 4,038 3,944 4,162 4,155 4,170 3,989 3,918 3,848 3,960 3,839 3,766 3,778 3,886 3,657 3,702 3,596 3,511 3,472 3,350 3,343 3,250
Amtrak N N N 2,383 2,148 2,089 2,066 1,978 2,024 2,018 1,900 2,017 2,201 2,289 2,255 2,344 2,688 2,690 2,537 2,145 2,068 2,025 1,948 1,824 1,745 1,773 1,668 1,628 1,561

KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are unavailable.

a For 1995 and subsequent years, highway passenger-miles were taken directly from Highway Statistics rather than derived from vehicle-miles and average occupancy, as is the case for 1960-1994.

b Motorcycle wasincluded in Light duty vehicle, short wheel base (previously Passenger car) in 1960 and 1965.

c 1960-99 data are for Passenger car and Other 2-axle, 4-tire vehicles, respectively. Data for 2007-11 were calculated using a new methodology developed by FHWA. Data for these years are based on new categories and are not comparable to previous years. The new category Light duty vehicle, short wheel base includes passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles with a wheelbase (WB) equal to or less than 121 inches. The new category Light duty vehicle, long wheel base includes large passenger cars, vans, pickup trucks, and sport/utility vehicles with wheelbases (WB) larger than 121 inches. The data from 1960-2006 are not comparable to the data from 2007-11.

NOTES

To calculate total Btu, multiply fuel consumed (see tables 4-21, 4-22, 4-24, 4-26) by 135,000 Btu/gallon for air carrier; 125,000 Btu/gallon for Light duty vehicle, short wheel base, Light duty vehicle, long wheel base, and Motorcycle; 138,700 Btu/gallon for Transit motor bus and Amtrak diesel consumption; and 3,412 Btu/KwH for Amtrak electric consumption.

Amtrak passenger-miles data for 2000 and earlier years are for fiscal years; and are not be comparable with 2001 and later years which is reported in calendar year.

Transit motor bus data for 1996 and later years are obtained from the National Transit Database and cannot be compared with data for earlier years.

SOURCES

Air:

Certificated air carriers:

Passenger-miles:

1960-70: Air Transport Association, available at http://www.air-transport.org/ as of July 31, 2002.

1975-2012: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, T1: U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Summary by Service Class, available at http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=264 as of June 10, 2014.

Fuel consumed:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Airline Fuel Cost and Consumption, available at http://www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp as of June 10, 2014.

Highway:

Passenger car:

1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, table VM-201A, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of Oct. 6, 2011.

1995-2006: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of Oct. 6, 2011.

Light duty vehicle, short wheel base:

2007-2012: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of June 4, 2014

Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle:

1970-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, table VM-201A, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of Oct. 6, 2011.

1995-2006: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of Oct. 6, 2011.

Light duty vehicle, long wheel base:

2007-2012: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of June 4, 2014

Motorcycle:

1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1985 (Washington, DC: 1986), table VM-201A.

For 1970-94, the unrevised motorcycle vehicle-miles are subtracted from the combined passenger car and motorcycle vehicle-miles from VM-201A.

1995-2012: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of June 4, 2014

Transit motor bus:

1960-95: American Public Transportation Association, 2010 Public Transportation Fact Book Appendix A: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), tables 2, 6, 30, 32 and similar tables in earlier editions, available at http://www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Pages/transitstats.aspx as of Aug 23, 2010.

1996-2012: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database, tables 17, 19, and similar tables in earlier editions, available at http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm as of Mar. 5, 2014.

Amtrak:

1975-2001: Amtrak., State and Local Affairs Department, personal communication.

2001-12: Amtrak, personal communications, Jan. 7, 2010, Jul. 26, 2011, Apr. 24, 2012, and June 9, 2014.