Table 4-22: Energy Intensity of Light Duty Vehicles and Motorcycles

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (R) 2011 2012
Vehicle-miles (millions)                                                          
Light duty vehicle, short wheel basea,b 587,000 723,000 917,000 1,034,000 1,112,000 1,247,000 1,408,000 1,358,000 1,372,000 1,375,000 1,406,000 1,438,000 1,470,000 1,503,000 1,550,000 1,569,000 1,600,287 1,627,365 1,658,474 1,671,967 1,699,890 1,708,421 1,690,534 2,104,416 2,024,757 2,015,714 2,025,745 2,046,282 2,063,357
Light duty vehicle, long wheel baseb N N 123,000 201,000 291,000 391,000 575,000 649,000 707,000 746,000 765,000 790,000 817,000 851,000 868,000 901,000 923,059 942,614 966,034 984,020 1,027,164 1,041,051 1,082,490 586,618 605,456 617,534 622,712 604,175 601,088
Motorcyclea U U 3,000 5,600 10,200 9,100 9,600 9,200 9,600 9,900 10,200 9,800 9,900 10,100 10,300 10,600 10,469 9,633 9,552 9,576 10,122 10,454 12,049 21,396 20,811 20,822 18,513 18,542 21,298
Passenger-miles (millions)                                                          
Light duty vehicle, short wheel basea,b 1,145,000 1,395,000 1,751,000 1,954,000 2,012,000 2,094,000 2,282,000 2,200,000 2,208,000 2,213,000 2,250,000 2,287,000 2,337,000 2,389,000 2,464,000 2,495,000 2,544,457 2,556,481 2,620,389 2,641,885 2,685,827 2,699,305 2,671,044 3,324,977 3,199,116 2,800,603 2,814,540 2,843,075 2,866,797
Light duty vehicle, long wheel baseb N N 226,000 363,000 521,000 688,000 1,000,000 1,117,000 1,202,000 1,253,000 1,269,000 1,256,000 1,298,000 1,353,000 1,381,000 1,433,000 1,467,664 1,678,853 1,674,792 1,706,103 1,780,771 1,804,848 1,876,690 1,017,007 1,049,667 824,994 831,912 807,148 803,023
Motorcyclea U U 3,000 6,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 12,000 11,516 11,760 12,131 12,163 12,855 13,277 15,303 27,173 26,430 22,428 19,941 19,972 22,940
Average occupancy rate                                                          
Light duty vehicle, short wheel basea,b 1.95 1.93 1.91 1.89 1.81 1.68 1.62 1.62 1.61 1.61 1.60 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.57 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.39 1.39 1.39 1.39
Light duty vehicle, long wheel baseb N N 1.84 1.81 1.79 1.76 1.74 1.72 1.70 1.68 1.66 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.78 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34
Motorcyclea U U 1.00 1.07 1.18 1.32 1.25 1.30 1.25 1.21 1.18 1.12 1.11 1.09 1.07 1.13 1.10 1.22 1.27 1.27 1.27 1.27 1.27 1.27 1.27 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08
Fuel consumed (million gallons)                                                          
Light duty vehicle, short wheel basea,b 41,171 49,723 67,819 74,140 69,982 71,518 69,568 64,317 65,436 67,048 67,874 68,072 69,221 69,892 71,695 73,283 73,065 73,559 75,471 75,455 75,402 77,418 75,009 89,577 85,589 85,658 86,789 88,359 88,541
Light duty vehicle, long wheel baseb N N 12,313 19,081 23,796 27,363 35,611 38,217 40,929 42,851 44,112 45,605 47,354 49,388 50,462 52,859 52,939 53,522 55,220 60,758 63,417 58,869 60,685 36,910 34,925 35,711 36,251 35,335 35,093
Motorcyclea U U 60 113 204 182 191 184 191 198 205 196 198 202 206 212 209 193 191 192 202 189 221 475 489 482 427 426 489
Energy intensity (Btu/passenger-mile)b                                                          
Light duty vehicle, short wheel basea,b 4,495 4,455 4,841 4,743 4,348 4,269 3,811 3,654 3,704 3,787 3,771 3,721 3,702 3,657 3,637 3,671 3,589 3,597 3,600 3,570 3,509 3,585 3,510 3,368 3,344 3,823 3,854 3,885 3,861
Light duty vehicle, long wheel baseb N N 6,810 6,571 5,709 4,971 4,451 4,277 4,256 4,275 4,345 4,539 4,560 4,563 4,568 4,611 4,509 3,985 4,121 4,452 4,452 4,077 4,042 4,537 4,159 5,411 5,447 5,472 5,463
Motorcyclea U U 2,500 2,354 2,125 1,896 1,990 1,917 1,990 2,063 2,135 2,227 2,250 2,295 2,341 2,205 2,273 2,049 1,969 1,969 1,969 1,784 1,805 2,185 2,315 2,688 2,675 2,669 2,665

KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; N = data do not exist; R = revised; U = data are unavailable.

a Motorcycle wasincluded in Light duty vehicle, short wheel base (previously Passenger car) in 1960 and 1965.

b 1960-99 data are for Passenger car and Other 2-axle, 4-tire vehicles, respectively. The data from 1960-2006 are not comparable to the data from 2007-11.

cEnergy Intensity (Btu/passenger-mile) is calculated by converting the fuel consumption in gallons to the energy equivalent Btu units and dividing by the passenger-miles. The heat equivalent factor used for Btu conversion is 125,000 Btus/gallon.

NOTES

Data for 2007-11 were calculated using a new methodology developed by FHWA. Data for these years are based on new categories and are not comparable to previous years. The new category Light duty vehicle, short wheel base includes passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles with a wheelbase (WB) equal to or less than 121 inches. The new category Light duty vehicle, long wheel base includes large passenger cars, vans, pickup trucks, and sport/utility vehicles with wheelbases (WB) larger than 121 inches.

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration revised its vehicle type categories for 1993 and later data. These new categories include passenger car, other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle, single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck, and combination truck. Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle includes vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. In previous years, some minivans and sport utility vehicles were included in the passenger car category. Single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more trucks are on a single frame with at least 2 axles and 6 tires. Pre-1993 data have been reassigned to the closest available category.

For 1970-94, the unrevised motorcycle fuel consumed is subtracted from the combined passenger car and motorcycle fuel consumed from VM-201A.

Vehicle-miles and Passenger-miles data for 1960 through 1999 have been rounded to the nearest billion miles.

SOURCES

Vehicle-miles:

Passenger car:

1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, table VM-201A, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of Oct. 6, 2011.

1995-2006: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of Oct. 6, 2011.

Light duty vehicle, short wheel base:

2007-2012: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of June 4, 2014

Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle:

1970-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, table VM-201A, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of Oct. 6, 2011.

1995-2006: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of Oct. 6, 2011.

Light duty vehicle, long wheel base:

2007-2012: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of June 4, 2014

Motorcycle:

1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics, Summary to 1985 (Washington, DC: 1986), table VM-201A.

For 1970-94, the unrevised motorcycle vehicle-miles are subtracted from the combined passenger car and motorcycle vehicle-miles from VM-201A.

1995-2012: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of June 4, 2014

Passenger-miles:

1960-97: Vehicle-miles multiplied by vehicle occupancy rates.

1998-2012: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of June 4, 2014

Fuel consumed:

1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.

1995-2012: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), table VM-1, available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics.cfm as of June 4, 2014