Table 4-24: Energy Intensity of Transit Motor Buses

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 (R) 2009 (R) 2010 (R) 2011 (R) 2012 (R) 2013 2014
Vehicle-miles (millions) 1,576 1,528 1,409 1,526 1,677 1,863 2,130 2,167 2,178 2,210 2,162 2,184 1,673 (R)1,849 (R)1,904 (R)1,985 (R)2,041 (R)2,104 (R)2,156 (R)2,117 (R)2,169 (R)2,192 (R)2,214 (R)2,241 (R)2,272 2,285 2,229 2,160 2,147 2,155 2,182
Passenger-miles (millions) N N N N 21,790 21,161 20,981 21,090 20,336 20,247 18,832 18,818 15,820 (R)17,509 (R)17,874 (R)18,684 (R)18,807 (R)19,583 (R)19,679 (R)19,179 (R)18,921 (R)19,425 (R)20,390 (R)20,388 (R)21,198 21,100 22,570 37,765 21,142 21,257 21,429
Energy consumed                                                              
Diesel (million gallons) 208 248 271 365 431 518 563 573 592 576 565 564 466 463 468 477 490 492 468 442 441 375 422 405 403 448 423 417 402 383 356
Compressed Natural Gas (million gallons) N N N N N N N N N N N 10 10 18 27 33 42 51 65 78 85 93 109 106 111 140 124 126 122 128 132
Bio-diesel (million gallons) N N N N N N N N N N N N N       N N 1 1 2 51 16 21 33 40 41 45 182 61 31
Liquefied natural gas (million gallons) N N N N N N N N N N N 2 2 3 3 4 9 10 14 12 13 14 15 15 15 25 23 21 19 17 14
Gasoline (million gallons) N N N N N N N N N N N 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 6 7 7 8 9 8
Other major fuelsa (million gallons) N N N N N N N N N N N N 11 9 4 2 1 1 2 (R) 2 (R) 2 (R) 3 (R) 2 (R) 1 (R) 1 3 3 4 4 6 6
Powerb (million KWH) N N N N N N N N N N N N 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
Energy consumed, total (Billion Btu) N N N N N N N N N N N N 65,971 65,846 66,340 67,548 69,801 70,455 68,000 (R)64,473 (R)64,820 (R)62,291 (R)64,752 (R)62,861 (R)64,243 73,511 69,722 69,399 84,520 66,819 59,154
Diesel 28,850 34,398 37,588 50,626 59,780 71,860 78,109 79,456 82,117 79,855 78,374 78,194 64,603 64,261 64,964 66,111 67,907 68,218 64,959 61,269 61,100 52,048 58,508 56,241 55,903 62,121 58,651 57,836 55,740 53,170 49,427
Compressed Natural Gas N N N N N N N N N N N 225 228 398 613 749 947 1,148 1,462 1,760 1,921 2,084 2,454 2,390 2,503 3,140 2,783 2,840 2,739 2,803 2,975
Bio-diesel N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N ` 107 268 6,492 2,027 2,602 4,151 4,990 5,158 5,657 23,020 7,710 3,953
Liquefied natural gas N N N N N N N N N N N 144 190 274 218 372 741 829 1,188 995 1,116 1,227 1,309 1,283 1,261 2,137 1,949 1,793 1,618 1,448 1,209
Gasoline N N N N N N N N N N N 288 125 165 189 135 127 154 132 115 180 96 231 238 354 786 859 914 1,055 1,098 1,044
Other major fuela N N N N N N N N N N N N 822 745 349 173 69 96 233 (R) 213 (R) 215 (R) 331 (R) 211 (R) 96 (R) 62 329 315 349 338 580 510
Powerb N N N N N N N N N N N N 3 2 6 8 10 10 26 14 20 12 12 11 9 8 8 11 11 11 35
Energy intensity (Btu/passenger-mile) N N N N N N N N N N N N 4,170 (R)3,761 (R)3,712 (R)3,615 (R)3,711 (R)3,598 (R)3,455 (R)3,362 (R)3,426 (R)3,207 (R)3,176 (R)3,083 (R)3,031 3,484 3,089 1,838 3,998 3,143 2,760

KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; N = data do not exist; R = revised.

a Before 2002, Other major fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and bunker fuel. From 2002 - 14, Other major fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, bunker fuel, kerosene, and grain additive. After 2014, other major fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas, ethanol and hydrogen.

b Power includes electric propulsion and electric battery.

NOTES

Data from 1996 and after are not comparable to the data for earlier years or to the data published in previous editions of the report due to different data sources used.

Data from 1997 and after are for those vehicles used for both directly operated (DO) and purchased transportation (PT) services.

Data from 2011 includes all buses including rapid transit as well as commuter buses.

Energy consumed, total does not include the other types of energy identified in table 17 in the National Transit Database due to the lack of information on the unit of measurement for such data before 2008.

The following conversion rates were used:

Diesel =138,700 Btu/gallon.

Compressed natural gas = 22,500 Btu/gallon.

Bio-Diesel = 126,200 Btu/gallon.

Liquefied natural gas = 84,800 Btu/gallon.

Gasoline = 125,000 Btu/gallon

Liquefied petroleum gas = 91,300 Btu/gallon.

Methanol = 64,600 Btu/gallon.

Ethanol = 84,600 Btu/gallon.

Bunker fuel = 149,700 Btu/gallon.

Kerosene = 135,000 Btu/gallon.

Grain additive = 120,900 Btu/gallon.

Electricity 1KWH = 3,412 Btu, negating electrical system losses. This table includes approximate electrical system losses, and thus the conversion factor is multiplied by 3.

SOURCES

1960-95: American Public Transportation Association, 2010 Public Transportation Fact Book Appendix A: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: Annual Issues), tables 2, 6, 30, 32 and similar tables in earlier editions, available at http://www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Pages/transitstats.aspx as of Aug 23, 2010.

1996-2014: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database, tables 17, 19, and similar tables in earlier editions, available at http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm as of Apr. 13, 2016.