Table 4-44: Estimated National Average Vehicle Emissions Rates per Vehicle by Vehicle Type using Reformulated Gasoline and Diesel

Table 4-44: Estimated National Average Vehicle Emissions Rates per Vehicle by Vehicle Type using Reformulated Gasoline and Diesel

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(Grams per mile)

  1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
RFG (assuming 100% RFG)                            
Light-duty vehicles                            
Exhaust HC 1.45 1.28 1.15 1.04 0.97 0.84 0.76 0.68 0.62 0.55 0.47 0.41 0.38 0.35
Nonexhaust HC 0.89 0.87 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.54 0.51 0.47 0.43
Total HC 2.34 2.15 2.01 1.88 1.78 1.48 1.39 1.29 1.21 1.12 1.02 0.92 0.85 0.78
Exhaust CO 22.78 20.84 19.43 18.25 17.21 15.36 14.68 13.88 13.17 12.49 11.44 9.81 9.29 8.84
Exhaust NOx 1.78 1.64 1.55 1.46 1.35 1.24 1.19 1.12 1.06 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.72 0.66
Light-duty trucks                            
Exhaust HC 2.09 1.85 1.69 1.55 1.44 1.27 1.18 1.07 0.97 0.89 0.71 0.63 0.59 0.50
Nonexhaust HC 0.93 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.68 0.67 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.53 0.50 0.47
Total HC 3.02 2.75 2.58 2.42 2.29 1.96 1.84 1.71 1.59 1.48 1.28 (R) 1.16 1.09 0.97
Exhaust CO 31.86 29.46 27.70 26.19 24.63 22.25 21.09 19.71 17.78 16.66 14.47 15.79 12.03 11.22
Exhaust NOx 1.84 1.73 1.65 1.59 1.55 1.47 1.45 1.41 1.36 1.31 1.20 1.07 1.01 0.93
Heavy-duty vehicles                            
Exhaust HC 2.14 1.91 1.70 1.48 1.32 1.16 1.03 0.92 0.77 0.70 0.62 0.51 0.45 0.40
Nonexhaust HC 1.72 1.64 1.56 1.50 1.43 1.12 1.07 1.03 1.01 0.97 0.90 0.83 0.78 0.73
Total HC 3.86 3.55 3.26 2.98 2.75 2.28 2.10 1.96 1.78 1.67 1.51 1.34 1.23 1.13
Exhaust CO 46.02 41.15 36.62 32.80 29.12 25.87 22.88 20.41 16.87 15.33 13.89 12.01 11.25 10.41
Exhaust NOx 6.13 5.90 5.74 5.57 5.41 5.18 5.01 4.86 4.75 4.63 4.36 3.79 3.39 3.00
Motorcycles                            
Exhaust HC 1.69 1.63 1.63 1.62 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61
Nonexhaust HC 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.41
Total HC 2.24 2.17 2.16 2.16 2.14 2.04 2.04 2.04 2.05 2.05 2.04 2.04 2.03 2.02
Exhaust CO 12.64 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56 12.56
Exhaust NOx 1.26 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25
DIESEL                            
Light-duty vehicles                            
Exhaust HC 0.77 0.79 0.81 0.81 0.82 0.80 0.76 0.73 0.73 0.60 0.58 0.48 0.36 0.29
Exhaust CO 1.69 1.73 1.76 1.78 1.79 1.78 1.75 1.73 1.74 1.59 1.57 1.41 1.21 1.09
Exhaust NOx 1.89 1.89 1.88 1.86 1.85 1.81 1.72 1.62 1.54 1.43 1.32 1.11 0.85 0.69
Light-duty trucks                            
Exhaust HC 1.67 1.69 1.63 1.51 1.42 1.02 0.88 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.80 0.79 0.63 0.55
Exhaust CO 2.85 2.89 2.79 2.60 2.44 1.77 1.54 1.66 1.68 1.68 1.37 1.34 1.06 0.93
Exhaust NOx 2.46 2.42 2.31 2.17 2.07 1.76 1.64 1.67 1.66 1.59 1.37 1.30 1.09 0.94
Heavy-duty vehicles                            
Exhaust HC 1.23 1.10 1.00 0.92 0.85 0.79 0.74 0.69 0.61 0.58 0.54 0.51 0.48 0.45
Exhaust CO 6.32 5.73 5.23 4.80 4.43 4.10 3.82 3.58 3.37 3.19 3.05 2.90 2.66 2.31
Exhaust NOx 20.49 20.24 20.04 19.84 19.14 18.05 16.68 15.52 13.92 12.50 11.45 10.55 9.60 8.61
Average Emissions Per Vehicle, RFG and Diesel Fleet                            
Exhaust HC 1.65 1.46 1.34 1.23 1.15 1.02 0.94 0.86 0.78 0.71 0.60 0.53 0.50 0.44
Nonexhaust HC 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.49 0.46 0.42
Total HC 2.51 2.30 2.16 2.03 1.93 1.64 1.55 1.44 1.35 1.26 1.12 1.02 0.95 0.87
Exhaust CO 24.92 22.93 21.56 20.38 19.27 17.44 16.62 15.64 14.43 13.62 12.18 10.66 10.12 9.52
Exhaust NOx 3.36 3.24 3.18 3.12 3.02 2.85 2.71 2.58 2.40 2.24 2.06 1.86 1.71 1.57

KEY: CO = carbon monoxide; HC = hydrocarbon; NOx = nitrogen oxide; RFG = reformulated gasoline; R = revised.

NOTES
As of July 1 of each year. Vehicle types are defined as follows: light-duty vehicles (passenger cars up to 6,000 lb gross vehicle weight rating GVWR) ; light-duty trucks (pickups and minivans up to 8,500 lb GVWR); heavy-duty vehicles (8,501 lb or more GVWR); motorcycle (on-highway only). The data in this table are based on MOBILE6, and reflect the introduction of RFG starting in 1995. Interested readers can learn more about the MOBILE6 model at the following USEPA Internet site http://www.epa.gov/otaq/m6.htm.
Emissions factors are national averages based on the following assumptions: ambient temperature 75 ºF, daily temperature range 60 -84 ºF, average traffic speed 27.6 mph (representative of overall traffic in urban areas), standard operating mode (cold-start, hot-start, stabilized), vehicle-miles traveled fractions and no inspection/maintenance or antitampering programs.
Emissions estimates in this table assume 100% RFG.
Average emissions per vehicle rates assume a fleet comprised exclusively of reformulated gasoline and diesel vehicles. For emissions estimates of a fleet using gasoline and diesel, see table 4-38.

SOURCE
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, personal communication, Nov. 23, 2009.